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[Ms P, fol. 87vPaulus Diaconus
Ps.-Basil: Ms K1, fol. 37v; Ms E1, p. 201

Ch. 22

Translated by: Lynda Coon

Sequitur: 1Singuli per singula lecta dormiant

Next: 1Individual monks ought to sleep in separate beds.

Rectum ordinem tenuit S. Benedictus in hoc loco, cum dixit de decanis, [cf. Regula Benedicti, c. 21] et nunc subjunxit: Quomodo dormiant monachi. Ille enim, quia dixit sollicitos esse debere decanos super decanias suas, nunc [autem] ipsam sollicitudinem disponit, qualiter fiat nocte, cum seniores vigilias dicit exercere. [K1, fol. 38r]

Saint Benedict preserved right order in this passage when he spoke about the deans, [cf. Regula Benedicti, c. 21] and now he added a section on How monks ought to sleep. Indeed, Benedict, since he said that deans ought to exercise watchful care over the ten monks under their charge, now arranges for the care itself and how it should occur during the night when the senior monks, as he says, exercise vigils.

Sequitur: 2Lectisternia pro modo conversationis secundum dispositionem abbatis sui accipiant.

Next: 2Let them receive bedding (lectisternia) suitable to the monastic life and according to the disposition of their abbot.

Sternia enim duobus modis dicuntur; i. e. domus, ubi lecti sternuntur, seu etiam locus, ubi unus lectus stratus existit.

The term sternia ("furnishings") indeed is used in two different senses: that is, [1] a household where beds are laid out or [2] a place in which there is one bed with a covering.

Pro modo, i. e. juxta qualitatem; modo enim pro qualitate accipitur.

Suitable to (pro modo) relates to character; the term ‘modo’ indeed is understood as according to character.

Conversationis, i. e. vitae - quasi diceret: secundum qualitatem [page 331] vitae uniuscujusque, [E1, p. 202] ita accipiat lectisternia.

Of the manner of living (conversationis), that is, of life, relates to the character [page 331] of monastic life– as if he were saying: according to the character of the life of each monk, thus he ought to receive his bedding.

Sic enim inferius dicit: 7Adolescentiores fratres juxta se non habeant lectos, sed mixtim cum senioribus.

Benedict states further down: 7Younger brothers (adolescentiores) should not have their beds next to one another, but should be interspersed with their seniors.

Bene dicit 5vestiti et cincti dormiant, quatenus absque mora et impedimento vestiendi valeant monachi ad signum occurrere.1

Benedict states it well: 5Monks ought to sleep clothed and girded, so that monks may hasten to meet the signal [for prayer] without delay and without the impediment of having to dress.

Sequitur: 3Si potest fieri, omnes in unum dormiant; si autem multitudo non sinit, deni aut viceni cum senioribus suis, qui super eos solliciti sint, pausent.

Next: 3If it is possible, all monks should sleep in one place; if, however, their number does not permit this, (non sinit) then ten or twenty monks should rest with their seniors, who exercise watchful care for them.

Non sinit, i. e. non permittit.

Non sinit means that it is not permitted.

In hoc enim loco intuendum est, quia, cum dicit solliciti sint, praecipit illos vigilare in dormitorio, quia potest sollicitus esse nemo in nocte, nisi vigilaverit, quia nos, cum solliciti volumus esse pro aliqua re, vigilamus.

In this passage, it ought to be realized, that when Benedict says they should exercise watchful care (solliciti sint), he orders them to keep watch in the dormitory, because no one is able to be watchful at night unless he remains awake, since we, when we wish to be vigilant on account of some other matter, stay awake.

Et cum dixit seniores, non dixit seniores aetate solummodo, [K1, fol. 38v] vel qui ante venerunt, sed de illis dicit senioribus, qui sensu et discretione praediti sunt.

And when Benedict said seniors (seniores), he did not speak of seniors in terms of age only, or those who arrived at the monastery first, but he refers to those as seniors who are equipped with sense and discretion.

Sequitur: 4Candela jugiter in eadem cella ardeat usque mane.

Next: 4A lamp ought to burn continuously in that same cell up until morning.

Ideo enim jugiter, quia semper vult, ut fiat.

Indeed, continuously (jugiter) because he wishes that it always be done.

Pro hoc quod dixit usque mane, usque ad diem vult, ut ardeat, et die adhuc lucente debet accendi.

For that reason he said up until morning, because he wishes that a lamp be lit up until daylight, and still with the daylight coming on, it ought to be lit.

H. e. v. gr.: si capitulum ante diem2 peragitur, debet accendi post capitulum, sicuti contingit hoc in aestivo tempore, quando grandi hora diei peragitur capitulum. Si autem tarde completur capitulum, i. e. jam incipiente nocte, debet accendi illa candela, dum in capitulo [Paul Diac, page 271] sedent, sicuti in hiemis tempore.

For example, if chapter [capitulum] is accomplished before the day ends, then the lamp ought to be lit after chapter, just as this happens in summertime, when chapter is accomplished at an advanced hour of the day. If, however, chapter is finished late, that is, with night already beginning, that lamp ought to be lit while the monks are sitting in chapter, just as in wintertime.

Conferendus est iste locus, in quo dicitur solliciti sint, cum illo, ubi dicit: foris autem vel ubi et ubi custodiam habeant. [Regula Benedicti, c. 63:19]

This place in the text in which it is said they are vigilant ought to be compared with that other passage where Benedict says: outside or anywhere else, [young monks] should have a guard. [Regula Benedicti, c. 63:19]

Intelligitur autem, ut non solum ardeat candela in dormitorio, verum etiam in exitu, quia ubi et ubi non possunt seniores adolescentiores custodire, nisi fuerit, sicut dixi, candela ad exitum.

Now, it is understood that not only should a candle burn in the dormitory, but also at the exit, since seniors are not able to supervise younger monks in every place (ubi et ubi) unless there is, as I said, a lamp at the exit.

Nam talis debet esse custodia infantum: decem enim infantes debent tres vel quatuor habere majores, qui illos custodiant.

Custodianship of children ought to be of this sort: ten children ought to have three or four older monks who safeguard them.

V. gr. si unus vel duo de ipsis magistris servierint in coquina, alii sint cum ipsis infantibus, qui [page 332] [E1, p. 203] non sinant eos jocari vel loqui aut quoquam ire, aut etiam aliquid inhoneste agere. Et si forte necessitas fuerit illis ad exitum ire aut etiam in aliquem locum, cum suo magistro eant.

For example, if one or two of their masters are serving in the kitchen, the others should be with these children. The masters [page 332] should not allow them to joke around or to talk or to go somewhere or to engage in some other dishonorable behavior. If it is absolutely necessary for them to go toward the exit or to go into some other place, then they should go with their master.

Nam ideo dixi, decem infantes quatuor magistros habere, ut puer non possit quoquam ire vel quidpiam agere sine suo magistro, quia si ita non fuerit, ubi et ubi non potest esse custodia. Nam nihil juvat, si in aliis locis custodia fuerit, et in omnibus non fuerit; v. gr. si solummodo in uno defuerit custodia, nil juvat illa custodia, quae in aliis locis fuerit.

For that reason I said ten children should have four masters, so that a boy is not able to go anywhere or to do anything without his master, because if it is not so, then a guard cannot be everywhere. For it is in no way beneficial if there is a guard in certain places but not in all places. For example, if the guard is lacking only in one place, that guard is of no help to that which happens in other places.

[K1, fol. 40r] Sic enim S. Gregorius dicit: Si tota civitas fuerit clausa et munita, solummodo unum foramen apertum fuerit in ea, per quod hostis intraverit, tota civitas perit, quia foramen apertum fuit, i. e. cuniculus, per quem hostis intravit. [cf. Gregory the Great, Moralia in Iob, XIX, c. 21.33, CCSL 143A, p. 983]

Thus indeed Saint Gregory says: If an entire city were shut up and fortified, but there remained in it one open hole through which an enemy enters, then the entire city perishes, because there was an open fissure, that is a mine, through which the enemy entered. [cf. Gregory the Great, Moralia in Iob, XIX, c. 21.33]

In hoc loco intuendum est, quia per hoc, quod B. Benedictus dicit: Candela jugiter usque mane ardeat, et per hoc, quod dicit: 7Adolescentiores fratres juxta se non habeant lectos, et, quamvis parum, etiam per hoc, quod dicit: Singuli per singula lecta dormiant, et: cum senioribus suis, qui solliciti sint, pausent, sodomiticum scelus vitandi causa dixit, sive vitium immunditiae.

It ought to be intuited from the fact that Benedict says: A candle continuously ought to burn up until morning, and that he also adds: 7Younger brothers ought not to have their beds next to one another, and although he says little about it, he says this: Individual monks ought to sleep in separate beds, and furthermore: they should rest with their seniors, who exhibit watchful care over them; he stated [these things] for the sake of avoiding the sodomitical crime or the vice of uncleanliness.

Attendendum est, quia foeditatem [P, fol. 88r] honestis verbis manifestavit, cum dicit, singulos dormire et candelam jugiter usque mane ardere et seniores sollicitos esse super eos debere, quia istud scelus valde nefandissimum est. Ideo praevenit illud, ne, quod absit, unquam fiat.

Close attention should be paid because Benedict revealed the shame [of that vice] through dignified language, when he says that monks ought to sleep in single beds and that a lamp ought to burn continuously up until morning and that senior monks ought to exhibit watchful care over their juniors, since that crime is the most abominable. For that reason, Benedict anticipated that crime, lest, God forbid, it might ever occur.

Nam consuetudo erat Romanorum, hoc scelus agere, sicut dicit B. Hieronymus, illos concubinos habuisse.

For it was the habit of the [ancient] Romans, who put this crime into practice, just as Blessed Jerome says, to have had those male concubines.

Non enim ita Paulus honestis verbis foeditatem illam manifestavit dicens: Nam feminae eorum mutaverunt naturalem usum in eum usum, [Paul Diac, page 272] qui est contra naturam. Similiter autem et masculi relicto naturali usu feminae exarserunt in desideriis suis in invicem, masculi in masculos turpitudinem operantes. [Rm 1:26-27]

Indeed, Paul did not reveal that abomination through dignified language when he says: For their women exchanged natural intercourse for an intercourse which is against nature. In the same way, men abandoned natural intercourse with women and were consumed in their own desires for one another. Men were performing depraved acts with other men. [Rm 1:26-27]

[K1, fol. 40v] Et ob hoc ideo non tam honestis verbis dicit Paulus sicuti B. Benedictus, quia plus manifestum dixit. Quia hoc scelus valde detestabile est Deo, ita3 etiam saepius Paulus illud manifestat. Dicit enim alibi: Omne peccatum, quodcumque [page 333] homo peccaverit, extra corpus suum peccat; qui autem fornicatur, in corpus suum peccat. [1 Cor 6:18]

And on account of this Paul does not speak with such dignified language as the Blessed Benedict. Paul spoke more plainly because this sin is intensely detestable to God. For that reason Paul frequently discloses the nature of that vice. Paul states elsewhere: Every sin whatsoever [page 333] a man sins, he sins outside of his own body; a fornicator, however, sins against his own body. [1 Cor 6:18]

Sunt quidam, qui intelligunt: si homo, qui habet uxorem, postea fornicatur, in uxorem suam peccat, hoc est in corpus suum peccare.

There are certain individuals who understand this passage as follows: if a man who has a wife, and, after he commits adultery, he commits an offense against his own wife, that is, he sins against his own body.

Augustinus vero dicit: Quid est, quod dicit: Omne peccatum, quodcumque peccaverit homo, extra corpus suum peccat; qui autem fornicatur, in corpus suum peccat? [1 Cor 6:18] - ac si diceret: in omni peccato quod homo peccat, potest aliud etiam cogitare, cum autem masculus cum femina concumbit, ex nimia dulcedine non potest aliud cogitare. [not identified].4

To be sure, Augustine states: What does the text mean when it says: ‘every sin whatsoever a man sins, he sins outside of his own body; a fornicator, however, sins against his own body’? - as if [the Apostle] were saying: In every sin which a man sins, he is able to think about something else, now, however, when a man lies together with a woman, because of the excessive sweetness of the experience he is not able to think about anything else. [not identified]

[K1 fol. 41r] Quasi diceret: cum facit aliud peccatum, potest esse corpus suum extra, si autem concumbit, in corpus suum peccat, h. e. contra corpus suum peccat, quia corpus suum totum libidini submittit.

As if Augustine [?] were saying: When he commits another sin, [that sin] exists outside of his own body. If, however, he has sexual intercourse, he sins against his own body. That is, he sins against his own body because he submits his entire body to wanton desire.

Eo quod ita est hoc peccatum detestabile valde, ideo ita caute disponit et studiose, quatenus nunquam hoc peccatum perpetrari possit. Nam verum est, quia, si ita custodia fuerit in monasterio, aut nunquam aut difficile hoc peccatum erit perpetratum.

Because this sin is exceedingly abominable, and for that reason Benedict prescribes cautiously and diligently, so that this sin should never have an occasion to be perpetrated. To be sure, because if there were a guard in the monastery then never or only with difficulty might this sin be perpetrated.

Hoc autem intuendum est, quia, si ita nutrierit infantes abbas, sicut S. Benedictus jubet, non poterit abbas pro tali peccato immunditiae suspicionem de illis habere. De illis autem, qui jam majores venerunt in monasterium, potest habere abbas suspicionem.

This, however, ought to be intuited because if an abbot raises children, just as Saint Benedict commands, then the abbot should not suspect them of so great a sin of lust. Concerning those monks, however, who entered the monastery as adults, the abbot can harbor suspicion.

Et hoc animadvertendum est, quia non solum dicit, illos custodire, qui adolescentiores sunt aetate vel pueri, sed etiam illos, quamvis [E1, p. 204] sint aetate majores, tamen, quia minus intelligunt et necessaria est illis custodia, ideo custodiendi sunt.

And attention ought to be paid that Benedict says to safeguard not only those who are younger in age or boys but also those [monks] who are older in terms of age but because they lack understanding a guard is also necessary for them; therefore, they ought to be guarded.

Verumtamen ita sunt custodiendi: Post completorium [autem] signo facto debent exire de choro, et magister illorum debet accendere lucernam et ire cum illis infantibus per singula altaria oratorii, ut per unumquodque altare usquedum oraverint, unus magister in ante, alter magister vadat in medio, et tertius magister retro.

Truly they ought to be guarded in this way: After Compline when the signal is made, they should exit from the choir, and their master ought to light a lamp and go with those children to each altar of the oratory until they have prayed at every altar in succession, one master going at the head of the line another in the middle and a third at the rear.

Deinde ire debent ad necessaria naturae cum lumine et magister ipsorum cum illis, qui ad exitum voluerint venire. Et quia indigent illuc custodia [page 334] ideo magistri eorum semper debent cum illis esse, usquequo collocari debeant.

Those who must go to the exit in order to answer the call of nature ought to go with a lamp and with their master attending them. And since they require supervision in that place, [page 334] therefore, their masters ought always to be with them up until the point when they should assemble themselves.

Deinde collocantur infantes, et donec illi infantes collocant se, semper assistere ibidem debent magistri, qui eos custodiant. Post vero succedit alia custodia, i. e. illi custodire incipiunt, quorum vices sunt custodiendi.

Thereupon the children are assembled and until those children put themselves into proper order, the masters, who watch over them, ought always to assist them in that place. Afterwards, there succeeds another guard, that is, those [monks] begin to guard whose turn it is to guard.

Illis autem, quibus necessaria est custodia, nunquam audeant foris exire dormitorio, et in basilicam ire causa orandi, nisi tantum quia non possit aliter fieri, cum opus est illis ire, v. gr. ad mingendum et ad exitum. Vadit ille, cui necesse est ire, et tangit illum seniorem, qui vigilat, et ille accendit lumen et vadit cum illo ad exitum, et sic lumine accenso revertitur cum illo ad lectum suum et collocat illum.

For those monks, however, for whom a guard is necessary, they should never be so bold as to exit outside of the dormitory and to enter the basilica for the sake of praying, except in the case in which it could not occur otherwise or when there is some other reason for them to go to the exit, for example, for the purpose of urinating. That monk goes, the one for whom it is necessary to go, and he touches that senior, who is awake, and that senior lights a lamp and goes with him to the exit, and thus with the lamp lit, he returns with him and he settles him back into his bed.

Et ille major, cui causa lavandi pollutionem necessitas fuerit, semper assistente et sciente seniore vadit, quia semper senior vigiliis insistit.

And that older monk, for whom it is necessary for the sake of washing off a pollution, always goes always with a senior knowing and assisting [him] since the senior monk is always persevering in [his] vigils.

Deinde ad vigilias signo facto accendit senior lumen in dormitorio, et tunc omnes, qui indigent custodia, non audet unus sine altero exire, sed omnes se vestiunt et praeparant se, et tunc praeparatis accenso lumine vadit magister ante et in medio et in fine, et ita vadunt ad ecclesiam; et in ecclesia [P, fol. 88v] adstantibus magistris orant et psallunt.

When the sign is made, the senior monk lights a lamp in the dormitory, then all who require a guard, let not one of them dare to exit without the other, but all the monks clothe themselves and prepare themselves, and then after having made themselves ready and with the lamp lit, a master goes at the front and [another] in the middle and [a third] at the end [of the line], and thus they go to the church; and in the church with the masters standing nearby, they pray and sing the Psalms.

Nunquam autem vadit infans sine custodia, i. e. sine suo magistro, aut illi, qui custodiam indigent. Reliqui, qui non indigent custodia, vadunt.

A boy, however, never goes forth without supervision, that is, without his own master, nor those who require a guard. The ones remaining, who do not require a guard, they are free to go.

Verumtamen sicut cum magistris et disciplina ipsi infantes ad nocturnas vadunt in ecclesiam, ita etiam cum magistris suis et disciplina debent ire in ecclesiam ad omne officium, i. e. ad matutinum, ad primam, ad tertiam, ad sextam, ad nonam, ad vesperam atque completorium, et si necessitas est; item ad opera exercenda ipsi infantes debent ire cum suis magistris.

Truly in the same way with masters and with discipline those boys go into the church for Vigils [?], and also with their masters and with discipline, they should go into the church at every office; that is, at Matins, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline. And if it is necessary likewise for doing good works, those children must go with their masters.

Sequitur: 5Vestiti dormiant et cincti cingulis aut funibus, et cultellos suos ad latus non habeant, dum dormiunt, ne forte per somnum vulnerentur dormientes.

Next: 5Monks should sleep clothed and girded with a belt and with a cord, and they should not have knives at their side while they are sleeping, lest by chance the ones sleeping get wounded in their sleep.

Qua ratione praeceperit monachos S. Benedictus cinctos vel vestitos jacere aut dormire, manifestat inferius cum subjungit: 6et ut parati sint monachi semper et facto signo absque mora surgentes festinent invicem praevenire ad opus Dei, cum omni tamen [page 335] gravitate et modestia.

The reason why Saint Benedict instructed monks to lie down and to sleep girded and clothed he makes evident below when he adds: 6Thus monks should always be prepared and, when the signal is made, rising up without delay, they should hasten to come before each other to the Word of God and yet [do so] with every [page 335] gravity and modesty.

Hic enim et in sensu superflua.5 Quod autem dicit et festinent se invicem, imperativus modus est.

Indeed, the phrase and (et) is in a sense superfluous here because Benedict states they should hasten themselves before each other, the mood [of the verb] is the imperative.

Et cultellos suos, i. e. sibi deputatos. Non enim est contrarius iste locus, cum dicit cultellos suos, illi loco, ubi dicitur: nec quisquam aliquid suum esse dicat vel praesumat, [Regula Benedicti, c. 33:6; cf. Act 4:32] eo quod differentia potest esse inter suum et suum.

And with their own knives, that is, those assigned to them. For this place in the text, where Benedict says, their knives, is not contradictory to that other passage, where it is stated: Lest someone might say or presume that something belongs to him, [Regula Benedicti, c. 33:6; cf. Act 4:32] because there can be a difference between ‘his’ (suum) and ‘his own’ (suum).

In hoc vero loco, cum dicit cultellos suos, intelligere debemus: i. e. ad suam utilitatem ab abbate sibi deputatos tantummodo. Ille autem locus, ubi dicitur ne quisquam suum esse dicat, intelligere debemus ad proprietatem et ad peculiaritatem, ut exinde, quod monachus voluerit, facere possit, quod omnimodo cavendum est.

In that passage where he states their knives (cultellos suos), we ought to understand: that is, [knives] assigned to them only by the abbot on account of their utility. That other place in the text, however, where it is stated Lest someone might say that it is his, we ought to understand as relating to private ownership, so that whatever a monk wishes, he is able to do, which ought to be avoided in all circumstances.

Nam talis est iste locus, qualis ille in evangelio, ubi legitur hoc modo: sed ut impleatur sermo, qui in lege eorum scriptus est; [Io 15:25] quem sensum B. Augustinus exponit ita dicens: Legem eorum dicit non ab ipsis datam, sed ipsis datam, [Augustine, Tractatus in Evangelium Ioannis 91, c. 4.7, CCSL 36] sicut dicimus panem nostrum quotidianum, quem tamen a Deo petimus addendo da nobis hodie.

For so it is in that passage in the gospel where it is read in this way: So that the Word might be fulfilled, which is written in their Law; [Io 15:25] the meaning of which Blessed Augustine explains thus, saying: [the evangelist] says ‘their law,’ that is, not the law given by them but given to them. [Augustine, Tractatus in Evangelium Ioannis 91, c. 4.7] Just as we say, Our daily bread, which nevertheless we seek from God by adding: ‘Give us today’.

[Per] hoc autem, quod dicit praevenire, ad surgere de lecto attinet, i. e. praeveniant se in surgendo ad opus Dei. Quod vero dicit cincti cingulis aut funibus, intelligere possumus, quia funis est, qui de cannabo fit vel lino in rotundum.

This passage, however, pertains to the act of rising up from bed, since it states to arrive (praevenire); that is, in getting themselves up, they ought to arrive at the Work of God. Since truly Benedict states [monks are to be] girded with belts or cords, we are able to understand since a cord is made from hemp or linen and is round in shape.

Cingulus autem est corrigia de lana vel de lino, sed non in rotundum sicut funis, sed in latum sicut tricia, sive etiam, ut Isidorus dicit: Funes dicti, quod antea in usum luminis fuerant circumdati cera, unde et funalia. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XIX, c. 4.1]

A belt, however, is a thong made either from wool or from linen, but is not round in shape like the cord, but broad in form like tresses (tricia), 1 or further still as Isidore says:They are called cords (funes) because formerly they were coated with wax for the use of a lamp, whence [the name] rope-torches (funalia) . [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XIX, c. 4.1] 2

Sequitur: 8Surgentes vero ad opus Dei invicem se moderate cohortentur propter somnolentorum excusationes.

Next: 8The ones arising for the Work of God should encourage one another in a restrained manner on account of the excuses of the sleepy monks.

Ita vero se cohortari debent fratres: ille autem frater, qui sapiens est, debet illum fratrem, qui juxta se jacet, [Paul Diac, page. 274] excitare.

The brothers ought to be encouraging one another in the following way: now the wise brother ought to wake up the other brother who lies down next to him.

Nam non debet juvenis, qui indiget disciplina, alium excitare propter occasionem peccati, nec etiam junior juniori debet innuere. Tamen debet unus aut duo seniores accenso lumine ire per dormitorium causa excitandi fratres somnolentos; [page 336] verum non debent tangere fratrem, sed solummodo axem lecti aut aliquid hujuscemodi, ut excitetur.

The young - because they lack discipline - ought not to wake up another monk on account of the occasion of sin, nor still should a junior monk make a sign to another junior. Yet one or two seniors monks should - with a lit lamp - go through the dormitory for the sake of waking up the sleeping brothers, [page 336] but they ought not to touch a brother, but only [touch] the foot [?] of the bed or something else of this sort so that he is awakened.

Quia enim de pollutione abluenda nunc diximus, necesse est, ut etiam dicamus de poenitentia, quae poenitentia necessaria sit illi, cui ipsa pollutio in nocte contigerit; hoc est, alia est pollutio, quae absque, crassitate, i. e. sine tactu et visu aut cogitatione aut sine crapula in praeterito die contigerit: iste talis pro hac pollutione quinque psalmos canere debet; et haec oratio quinque psalmorum holocaustum dicitur, quia pene sine necessitate, hoc est sine culpa fit.

Since we have spoken about washing for a pollution, it is necessary that we say something more about penance, which penance would be necessary for those monks who suffer a pollution at night; there is one pollution which happens without the dullness of sleep, that is, without touching or seeing or thinking or without even being intoxicated [this pollution] might have happened during the past day; the monk who suffers from this sort of pollution, he should sing five psalms. And this prayer of five psalms is called a holocaust offering because it is done almost without necessity, that is, without guilt.

Ideo dixi pene, quia adeo est illud peccatum subtile, ideo videtur non omnimodo sine necessitate esse. Deinde alia est illa pollutio, quae cum crassitate somni, i. e. quae per perpetrationem somni fit.

For that reason I said almost (pene) because that sin is subtle; therefore, it seems that [the penance] is not wholly necessary. And then there is another sort of pollution, which happens with the dullness of sleep, that is, [a sin] which occurs during the performance of sleep. And the monk afflicted by this sort of pollution, he should sing ten psalms.

Et ideo, cui haec taliter pollutio contigerit, decem psalmos cantare debet. Si vero ipsa pollutio fit ex crapula et ex cogitatione, debet quindecim psalmos canere, quia illa pollutio, pro qua decem, et ista, pro qua quindecim psalmos canere diximus, jam sacrificium est, h. e. quia ex necessitate fit.

But truly if this pollution occurs from either drunkenness or from thinking, then he should sing fifteen psalms, since that pollution for which we said a monk had to sing ten psalms or the other for which he had to sing fifteen psalms is already a sacrifice; that is, since it is done from necessity.

Verumtamen consideranda est illa crapula, i. e. superfluitas cibi vel potus, utrum magna an parva fuisset. Similiter etiam cogitatio illa perpendenda est, si longinqua est valde, pro qua etiam unum psalterium canendum est.

Verily that sin of intoxication ought to be considered; that is, an overabundance of either food or drink, whether it was great or small. Similarly, concerning that sin brought on by thinking, it ought to be assessed, if indeed it occurs over a long period of time, then one Psalter ought to be sung.

Superius enim diximus, quia seniores vigiliis semper insistere debent.

As we said above, since the senior monks ought to persevere always with [their] vigils.

Forte dicit aliquis: 'quia vigilare in nocte nolo, nisi ad illud tempus, ad quod mihi superius ipse pater praecipit vigilare, sicut in octavo capitulo dicit.' Cui respondendum est: Utrumque praecepit S. Benedictus: superius enim, quia generaliter praecipiebat omnibus vigilare, ideo dicit, secundum quod in octavo capitulo disposuit; nunc autem, quia non generaliter omnibus praecipit, nec etiam qualicumque, sed senioribus, ideo modo specialiter dicit, exerceri a senioribus vigilias, quod tunc praecipit omnibus, quia aliter est, disponere generaliter [P, fol. 89r] omnibus, et aliter, specialiter quibusdam.

Perhaps someone argues: ‘I am unwilling to conduct vigils at night except during that time when Father [Benedict] instructs me to keep the vigils, just as he says in Chapter 8 of the Rule.’ To whom it ought to be responded: Saint Benedict advised both instances: above (in Chapter 8), since he was instructing generally that all monks keep vigils, for that reason he states [this], according to that which he arranged in Chapter 8; now (in Chapter 22), however, since he does not order all monks [to keep vigils] nor any monk whatsoever, but only the seniors; therefore, Benedict refers specifically to them, so that vigils are to be exercised by the seniors. Thereupon, Benedict orders every monk, since it is one thing to prescribe generally for all and yet another thing to prescribe for a specific group.

Nam sicut specialiter definivit, quales debeant esse decani aut cellerarius, ita etiam tunc specialiter definivit, qualiter seniores vigilias exercere studeant in nocte de his, cum quibus pausare [page 337] debeant.

For just as he defined specifically what sort of persons the deans or the cellarers ought to be, [cf. Regula Benedicti, c. 21 and 31] so too he defined precisely in what manner the seniors should strive to exercise vigils during the night over those with whom they [page 337] should rest.

[K1, fol. 39v] Forte dicit aliquis: 'Non hoc regula dicit, ut in omnibus sint magistri cum infantibus. Iste, qui hoc dicit, non intelligit regulam, quae ait: ubi et ubi custodia sit, [cf. Regula Benedicti, c. 63:19] cum ubi et ubi6 intelligitur in omni loco, et nullum praetermittit i. e. sive stando aut ambulando aut sedendo aut aliquid agendo.

Perchance someone says: ‘The Rule does not state this that everywhere masters should be with children.’ He who says this does not understand the Rule, which states: There should be a guard everywhere, [cf. Regula Benedicti, c. 63:19] when everywhere (ubi et ubi) is understood as meaning in every place. And the Rule omits no activity; that is, whether standing, walking, sitting, or doing anything else.

Nos vero non dicimus nova, sed intelligimus regulae jussa, quae etiam vidimus facta. Quia istud ubi et ubi nihil praetermittit, sed omnia loca comprehendit, ideo taliter intelligimus, qualiter impleatur praeceptum, ne transgressores ejusdem praecepti existamus.

Truly, we do not say new things, but we understand the precepts of the Rule, which we still see being done. Since that phrase everywhere (ubi et ubi) omits nothing but includes all places, thus we understand how the command ought to be fulfilled lest we prove to be transgressors of that very same command.

Quodsi ille dixerit, quia haec, quae dicta sunt, non deberi7 aut non possunt fieri, ille videat, qui hoc dicit, et ita intelligat, ut nullus locus sit, in quo infantes aut adolescentiores aut illi, qui minus intelligere possunt, non habeant custodiam; quia si quilibet locus fuerit, in quo non sit custodia, jam praevaricator istius praecepti, hoc est ubi et ubi, existit, cum in isto ubi et ubi omnia loca contineantur, et nullus locus excipiatur.

But if that same individual says that these things, that were spoken, should not happen nor cannot happen, so that the unchanged individual, the one who says this, should see and should understand that there should be no place in which children, adolescents, or those who are less capable of understanding lack a guard. Because if such a place exists in which there is no guard, then even now the transgressor of that very command - that is, everywhere [there should be a guard] - exists. Whereas all places should be contained in that phrase everywhere (ubi et ubi) and no place is to be excluded.

Maxime hoc timeat ille, qui ita intelligit, quia, si per suum intellectum remanserit aliquis locus sine custodia et quilibet illorum, qui sub custodia sunt, ibidem occasionem peccati invenerit et peccaverit, ad ipsum maxime illud malum respicit, qui hujus loci7 male intelligendo auctor existit.

That individual [who says these things] should fear this greatly that he understands in this way because if through his own comprehension there remains some place in which there is no guard, then any of those who are under guard will have found an occasion to sin and will have sinned. He gazes to the greatest extent on that evil, he who is the author of the misunderstanding of this passage.

1. Haec sententia errore hic posita ad inferiorem regulae textum pertinet. (Mittermüller).
2. Certo legendum: noctem. (Mittermüller).
3. Ideo (?), itaque (?). (Mittermüller).
4. Ideo (?), itaque (?). (Mittermüller). Ps.-Basiil provides a more extensive version of this quotation: Ideo Paulus apostolus dicit omne peccatum, quodcumque peccatum homo peccaverit, extra corpus suam peccat. Qui autem fornicatus fuerit, in corpus suum peccat. Quia cum homo aliud peccatum peragit, potest, dum illud perpetrat, aliud cogitare. Cum autem cum muliere concumbit, ita subicitur illi peccato, ut nil aliud valeat cogitare quam illud, quod operatur, propter nimiam eiusdem peccati delectationem. Et quia ita agitur, ideo dicit qui autem fornicatus fuerit, in corpus suum peccat, hoc est contra corpus suum peccat, quia totum corpus suum libidini submittit. The origin of this quotation cannot be traced.
5. superfluum (?). est. (Mittermüller).
6. The RB gives here ubiubi instead of ubi et ubi [RB 63:19].
7. debent (?). (Mittermüller).
8. mali (?). (Mittermüller).

1. Niemeyer, Media Latinitatis lexicon, p. 1043, defines tricia as "tresses of hair."
2. Isidore of Seville, Etymologies 19.4.1: "Funes dicti quod antea in usum luminis fuerint circumdati cera; unde et funalia."

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