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[Ms P, fol. 122vPaulus Diaconus
Ps.-Basil: Ms K1, fol. 108v; Ms E1, p. 268]

Ch. 39

Translated by: Ben DeSmidt

1Sufficere credimus ad refectionem quotidianam tam sextae quam nonae omnibus mensibus cocta duo pulmentaria propter diversorum infirmitates, 2ut forte qui ex uno non potuerit edere, ex alio reficiatur.

1We believe that for daily refreshment—for noon as for 3 P.M.—two cooked dishes suffice for all months, taking into account the sicknesses of different people, 2so that, by chance, a person who could not eat from one, may make his meal from another.

In hoc loco notandum est, quia, cum dicit De mensura ciborum, non tantum dicit pro mensuratione ciborum, sed etiam pro numero ciborum. Sunt enim multae regulae, quae habent mensis, aliae habent mensibus; sed melius est mensibus, quam mensis, eo quod mensibus adtinet ad jugitatem temporis, mensis vero ad intervallum temporis, eo quod potest una vice omnibus mensis ita agere aut plus aut minus.

Note should be taken in this place, because, when he says On the Measure of Foods, he not only speaks about the measuring of foods, but also about the number of foods. For there are many rules which have meals [mensis], others have months [mensibus]; but months is better than meals, because of the fact that months pertains to continuity of time, meals really to an interval of time; because of the fact that it is possible thus in a single turn, either more or less, to act for all meals.

Refectio cottidiana varie intelligitur; alii sunt, qui intelligunt, ut, sicut in diebus privatis, ita etiam in solemnibus et in Pascha intelligunt,1 i. e. ut duo pulmentaria cocta debeant esse in solemnibus, sicut in diebus privatis, propter illud, quod patres nostri in privatis diebus manducabant ad nonam et in solemnibus ad sextam, et ita tantum manducabant ad sextam et seram, ut non plus quam in diebus privatis manducarent [page 435] ad nonam, quia solummodo illum cibum, quem ad nonam manducabant, manducabant ad sextam et seram, sed meliorem aliquantulum, sive tria pulmentaria cocta; nam numerum augebant. Alii sunt, qui quotidianam refectionem intelligunt de diebus privatis, et in solemnibus plus, propter illud, quod idem S. Benedictus alibi dicit diebus privatis et dominica [e.g. Regula Benedicti, c. 13], ut, sicut illic divisit inter privatos dies et dominicam, cum de officiis dixit, ita et in hoc loco intelligitur divisisse, cum dicit ad refectionem quotidianam, ac per hoc in eo, quod dicit ad refectionem quotidianam datur intelligi, ut ad refectionem solemnium dierum aliquid plus et melius esse debeat.

Daily refreshment is understood variously; there are some who understand that just as on weekdays, so also on holy days and on Easter it is understood,1 that is, that there ought to be two cooked dishes on holy days on account of the fact that our fathers were accustomed to eat on weekdays at 3 P.M. and on holy days at noon; and thus they were accustomed to eat so much at noon and in the evening that they did not eat more than on weekdays [page 435] at 3 P.M., because only that food which they ate at 3 P.M. did they eat at noon and later. But they ate a little better, or three cooked meals, for they increased the number. There are others who understand daily refreshment concerning weekdays, and more on holy days, on account of the fact that Saint Benedict says the same thing elsewhere [about] weekdays and Sunday [cf. Regula Benedicti, c. 13], so that just as in that place where he made a distinction between weekdays and Sunday, when he spoke about offices, so also in this place he is understood to have made the distinction when he says for daily refreshment. And, because of this, in the passage which says for daily refreshment, it is permissible to understand that there should be something more and better for refreshment on holy days.

Pulmentaria vero multis modis dicuntur. Dicuntur enim de carne, sicut legitur in libro Geneseos, dixisse Isaac ad filium suum, ut isset in venationem et de sua venatione fecisset illi pulmentum. [Cf. Gn 25] Dicuntur etiam de piscibus, sicuti habes in evangelio, ubi Dominus post resurrectionem suam apparuit discipulis piscantibus et interrogavit eos, si haberent aliquid pulmentarii; et cum venissent discipuli in terram, viderunt prunas et super prunas piscem positum. [cf. Io 21:9] Dicitur enim pulmentum de leguminibus, sicuti habes in praefato libro Geneseos, ubi dicitur: Coxit autem Jacob pulmentum, quod fuit de lenticula factum. [Gn 25:9]

Indeed, dishes are spoken about in very many ways, for they are said to be of flesh, as is read in the Book of Genesis, that Isaac said to his son so that he went to hunt and from his hunt made that man a meal. [cf. Gn 25] They are also said to be of fish, as you have in the Gospel, where after his resurrection the Lord appeared to his disciples, who were fishing, and asked them whether they had something for a dish; and after the disciples had come to land, they saw coals and a fish placed on top of the coals [cf. Io 21:9]. For a meal of beans is spoken of, as you have in the aforementioned Book of Genesis, when it is said: Jacob, however, cooked him a meal that was made of lentil. [Gn 25:9]

Pulmentum enim dicitur, sicut tradunt magistri, quidquid pani adjicitur, ut melius ipse panis comedatur, sicuti est caseum et folia porrorum et ovum et cetera his similia. Nam si caseum non coctum manducaveris cum pane, non dicitur pulmentum coctum, si autem coctum fuerit, dicitur pulmentum coctum. In hoc loco pulmentum coctum dictum est, quod fit de oleribus, de caseo et ovis et de farina, quia diversae coctiones fiunt de oleribus, de caseo et ovis, sive de farina.

For a meal is called, just as our masters pass it down, something added to bread, so that the bread itself is better eaten, just as there is cheese and the leaves of leeks and an egg and the rest like these. For if one eats uncooked cheese with bread, it is not said to be a cooked meal; if, however, it has been cooked, it is called a cooked meal. In this instance, it is called a cooked meal, because it is made from herbs, from cheese and eggs and from grain, because different sorts of cooked dishes are made from herbs, from cheese or from grain.

Nam qualis esse monachis cibus debeat, manifestatur in VI. libro institutae patrum, ubi de vitio gastrimargiae exponitur. [cf. Cassian, Institutiones V, SC 109, pp. 190-258] Igitur eligendus est cibus non tantum, qui concupiscentiae flagrantes aestus temperet minusque succendat, verum etiam, qui ad parandum sit facilis et quem ad emendum opportuniorem vilioris pretii compendium praestet quique sit conversationi fratrum usuique communis.

For the sort of food that ought to be for the monks is clearly shown in the sixth book of the Institutes of our Fathers, where the vice of gluttony is explained. [cf. Cassian, Institutiones V] Thus, not only must food be chosen that moderates and inflames to a lesser degree the burning waves of lust, but also a kind that is easy to procure and offers more reliable savings for buying it at a cheaper price and which is common to the regular use and practice of the brothers.

Pulmentum [page 436] ut Isidorus dicit, vocatur a pulte; sive enim sola pultis, sive quid aliud ejus permixtione sumatur, pulmentum proprio dicitur. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XX, c. 2.7]

Meal, [page 436] as Isidorus says, is called from mash; for whether it is only of mash or something else is obtained from mixing it in, it is properly called a meal. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XX, c. 2.7]

Reddit enim causam, quare duo pulmentaria cocta dixerit, cum subjunxit: propter diversorum infirmitates, ut forte qui ex uno non potuerit edere, ex alio reficiatur, ac si diceret: 'Ideo dico duo pulmentaria, ut, qui non potest ex uno edere, ex alio reficiatur.'

For he gives the reason why he said two cooked dishes, when he joined: taking into account the sicknesses of different people, so that, by chance, a person who could not eat from one, may make his meal from another, as if he were to say: ‘On that account I say two dishes so that the person who cannot eat from one may make his meal from another.’

Et hoc notandum est, ut ille, qui ex uno tantummodo potest edere, tantum accipiat ex illo, quantum illi suffecisset ex duobus. Si vero non potuerit etiam ex illo primo edere, detur illi caseum aut ova aut aliud, quod manducet.

This thing also should be noted that the man who can eat from one only should take as much from it as would be sufficient for him from two. If he really could also not eat from that first one, let cheese or egg or another thing that he could eat be given to him.

Sequitur: 3Ergo duo pulmentaria cocta fratribus omnibus sufficiant. Istud ergo superius respicit, ac si diceret: Ergo quia credimus,2 duo pulmentaria sufficiant omnibus fratribus.

Next: 3Let two cooked dishes, therefore, be sufficient for all brothers. That therefore looks back earlier as if he were to say: Therefore because we believe it, let two dishes be sufficient for all brothers.

Sequitur: 3Et si fuerint3 [unde] poma aut nascentia leguminum, addatur et tertium. Nascentia leguminum intelliguntur germinantia, quia mos est illius terrae et romanae et aliarum provinciarum, mittere legumina in aqua, et cum germinata fuerint, tunc manducant.

Next: 3And if there should be fruit or seedlings of beans, let a third also be added. Sprouts are understood as Seedlings of beans, because it is the custom of this region and in that of Rome and of other provinces, to mix beans in water and, when they have sprouted, then they eat them.

Hoc autem notandum est, quia in diebus privatis, si non fuerit calor aut maxinms labor, duo debent esse ad sextam pulmentaria cocta et unum crudum, et ad seram tertium coctum, si coenaturi sunt, ad aestimationem panis, i. e. quia, sicut ipse dixit, duas partes librae panis debet monachus manducare ad sextam, et tertiam ad seram, si coenaturus est; ita etiam de pulmentis intelligitur, h. e. duo pulmenta cocta habeat monachus ad sextam, et tertium crudum, et ad seram unum pulmentum coctum, quod est jam tertium coctum, sicuti tertiam partem librae panis. Si autem ad nonam fuerit manducandi tempus, jussit dari duo pulmenta cocta et unum crudum.

This, however, should be noted, because on weekdays, if there has not been heat or a very large amount of hard work, there ought to be two cooked meals at noon and one raw, and in the evening a third cooked, if they are going to dine, up to a measure of bread, that is, because, just as he himself said, a monk ought to eat two shares of a pound of bread at the noon meal, and a third in the evening, if he is going to dine; thus it is also understood about meals, this is, that a monk should have two cooked dishes at noon, and a third raw, and one cooked meal in the evening, which is now the third cooked meal, just as the third part of a pound of bread. If, however, the time for eating will be at 3 P.M., he ordered that two cooked meals be given and one raw.

Hoc notandum, quia poma aut ad sextam vel ad seram debent dari ad coenam; nam ad nonam in aestivo [page 437] tempore aut ad seram in hiemis tempore non debent, quia B. Benedictus non jussit in aestivo tempore nisi duabus vicibus manducare. Nam si ad nonam manducaveris, non duabus vicibus, sed tribus manducas; similiter in hieme, si ad seram poma manducaveris, non semel, sed duabus vicibus manducabis.

This should be noted, because fruit ought to be given for dinner at noon or in the evening; for at 3 P.M. in the summertime [page 437] or for the evening meal in wintertime they should not, because the Blessed Benedict did not order them to eat in summertime unless in two different rounds. For if you have eaten at 3 P.M., one eats not in two rounds, but in three; likewise, in winter, if you have eaten fruit in the evening, not once, but in two rounds, you will eat.

Sequitur: 4Panis libra una propensa sufficiat in die, sive una sit refectio, sive prandii et coenae.4 Propensa, i. e. praeponderata, h. e. mensurata. In diebus vero solemnibus vel quando labor fratrum fuerit factus, debet dare ad sextam tria pulmentaria cocta et quartum crudum, prout labor fuerit. Ad seram vero unum coctum, sicut ipse dixit: 6Si labor forte factus fuerit major, in arbitrio et potestate abbatis erit, si expediat, aliquid augere, 7remota prae omnibus crapula.

Next: 4Let one fully-weighed pound of bread a day be sufficient, whether the repast be one or of lunch and dinner. Fully-weighed, that is, weighed-down, this is, measured. On holy days, in fact, or when hard work of the brothers has been completed, he ought to give three cooked dishes at noon and a fourth raw, according as there was work. In the evening, in fact, one cooked, just as he himself said: 6If by chance the hard work will have been greater, it will be in judgment and power of the abbot, if it should be expedient, to make some increase, with over-eating 7before all things avoided.

Expediat, i. e. oporteat; remota, i. e. ablata; prae omnibus, i. e. super omnia.

Should it be expedient, that is, should it be fitting; avoided, that is, removed; before all, that is, above all.

Sequitur: 8ut nunquam subripiat monacho indigeries, quia nihil sic contrarium est omni christiano, quomodo crapula, 9sicut ait Dominus noster: Videte, ne graventur corpora vestra in crapula. [cf. Lc 21:34, here corda vestra]

Next: 8In order that indigestion never stealthily take a monk, because nothing is so contrary to every Christian thing, in the way that over-eating is, 9just as our Lord says: See to it that your bodies not be weighed down by over-eating. [cf. Lc 21:34, here your hearts]

In hoc enim loco notandum est, quia mentionem facit illius luci, in quo Dominus dixit: Videte, ne corpora vestra graventur in crapula et ebrietate et saeculari cura. [cf. Lc 21:34]

For in this passage it should be noted, because he makes mention of that passage in which the Lord has said: See to it that your bodies not be weighed down in over-eating and drunkenness and temporal concern. [cf. Lc 21:34]

Notandum est etiam, quia his tribus verbis, i. e. crapula et ebrietate atque saeculari cura comprehenditur, quod Joannes evangelista dicit: Omne, quod in mundo est, concupiscentia carnis est et concupiscentia ocolorum et superbia vitae. [1 Io 2:16]

It should also be noted, because with these three words, that is, with over-eating and drunkenness and temporal concern, what John the Evangelist says is understood: Each thing that is in the world is lust of the flesh and desirousness of the eyes and pride of life. [1 Io 2:16]

Concupiscentia enim carnis adtinet ad crapulam et ebrietatem, concupiscentia autem oculorum et superbia vitae attinet ad curam saeculi. His enim verbis continentur etiam illae tres excusationes, quibus se excusaverunt illi, qui ad coenam vocati sunt, i. e. uxor, ager et juga boum. Uxor enim potest attinere ad crapulam et ebrietatem; ager et juga boum possunt attinere ad curas saeculi. Necnon etiam his tribus verbis Domini comprehenduntur illae tres tentationes, quibus diabolus tentavit Dominum, i. e. gula, avaritia et jactantia.

For lust of the flesh applies to over-eating and drunkenness; desirousness of the eyes, however, and pride of life apply to concern for the times. For in these words are also contained those three excuses with which those men who were called to dinner excused themselves, that is, the wife, the field, and the team of oxen. For the wife can apply to over-eating and drunkenness; the field and team of oxen can apply to concerns for the times. And indeed also with these three words of the Lord those three temptations are understood, by which the devil tempted the Lord, that is, gluttony, avarice and boasting.

Gula autem potest attinere ad crapulam, avaritia et jactantia attinet ad curas saeculi. In his autem tribus tentationibus comprebenduntur omnia vitia; si enim non [page 438] continerentur omnia vitia, nequaquam Lucas evangelista cum dixit 'tentatione', praemitteret 'omni'; ait enim: consummata omni tentatione. [Lc 4:13]

Gluttony, moreover, can apply to over-eating, avarice and boasting apply to concerns for the times. Moreover, in these three temptations all the vices are understood; for if [page 438] all the vices are not included, Luke the Evangelist, when he said ‘temptation’, would not preface it with ‘all’; for he says: with every sin added together. [Lc 4:13]

Sicut enim peritissimus medicus, cum videt infirmum, dicit infirmo: ab isto et isto cibo abstine te, quia, nisi te ab illis cibis abstinueris, in magnam incides infirmitatem, ita et Dominus fecit. Ille enim, cum descendisset de coelis, invenit genus humanum infirmum et dixit illi: 'O genus humanum! quia infirmum te inveni, ideo praecipio tibi: Attende, ne graventur corda vestra crapula et ebrietate sive curis saeculi.' [Lc 21:43]

For, thus, the most learned physician, when he sees a sick man, says to the sick man: keep yourself away from that food and that food, because, unless you keep away from those foods, you will fall into great sickness; so, also, the Lord has done. For He, after he had descended from the heavens, found the human race sick and said to it: ‘O human race! because I have found you sick, on that account I warn you: Pay attention so that your hearts not be weighed down with over-eating and drunkenness or with the concerns of the times.’ [Lc 21:43]

Ubi animadvertendum est, si homo medicum terrenum auscultat et obtemperat illi propter salutem corporalem, quanto magis debemus medico coelesti auscultare, ut salvi esse mereamur in vita aeterna. Crapula enim intelligitur tunc esse, cum superflue cibus sumitur et exinde gravatur homo; nam stomachus hominis est ventriculus, quasi olla prope hepar, et ibi reconditur cibus et ex calore hepatis coquitur cibus.

Where attention must be paid, if a man listens to an earthly physician and complies with that man on account of his bodily health, by how much more we ought to listen to the heavenly physician, so that we may deserve to be saved in eternal life. For over-eating is understood to exist then, when food is taken superfluously and, consequently, the physical man becomes weighed down; for the stomach of a physical man is a belly, as if a pot near to the liver, and there the food is stored, and by the heat of the liver the food is cooked.

Deinde cum cibus ultra mensuram, illius ventriculi sumptus fuerit, non potest coqui a calore hepatis, et ex hoc ascendit fumus cibi per membra et ad caput, et ex hoc adgravatur homo et habet eructationem sicut ex infirmitate et adeo debilis redditur, ut nil boni agere possit.

Secondly, whenever food has been taken that exceeds the measure of that belly, it cannot be cooked by the heat of the liver, and, from this, the vapor of food rises through the limbs and up to the head, and, from this, the man is weighed down more and has belching as from sickness, and he is rendered so feeble that he is able to do nothing good.

Crapula est superabundantia; indigeries, i. e. indigestio; subripiat, i. e. latenter rapiat; sub enim pro latenter ponitur, ripiat, i. e. rapiat, accipiat. Subripiat enim compositum est ex integro et corrupto, ex sub integro et ripiat corrupto, i. e. subrapiatac si diceret: ut nunquam monacho indigeries subripiat.

Over-eating is superabundance; indigestion, that is, upset digestion; stealthily take, that is, snatch unawares; for stealthily is put in place of unawares; snatches, that is, snatch, in place of take. For stealthily take is composed from a whole thing and a corrupt thing, from the whole thing stealthily and a corrupt thing snatch, that is, stealthily take, as if he were to say: in order that indigestion may never stealthily take a monk.

Si labor autem forte factus fuerit, ita debet [et] tantum augere, ut nunquam latenter rapiat, i. e. domineteur indigestio in monachum, quia, nihil sic contrarium est omni christiano, quomodo crapula, sicut Dominus ait: Videte, ne graventur corda vestra crapula. [Lc 21:34] Subaudiendum est etiam illud, quod Dominus subjunxit: et ebrietate et cura saeculi. Intellexit enim S. Benedictus, nihil sic contrarium esse christiano, quomodo crapula, eo quod per crapulam venitur in gulam, de gula in immunditiam, deinde in cetera vitia. Ideo dixit remota prae omnibus crapula. [page 439]

If by chance, however, hard work has been completed, as a consequence he ought to make an increase such that it never snatches unawares, that is, so that indigestion be lord over the monk, because, nothing is so contrary to every Christian thing as is over-eating, just as the Lord says: see to it that your hearts not be weighed down by over-eating. [Lc 21:34] A further meaning must also be heard, because the Lord has attached: and by drunkenness and by concerns for the times. For Saint Benedict understood that nothing is so contrary to a thing Christian as over-eating, because of the fact that through over-eating one comes into gluttony, through gluttony into impurity, then into the rest of the vices. On this account, he said with over-eating removed before all things. [page 439]

Sequitur: 10Pueris vero minori aetate non eadem servetur quantitas, sed minor, quam majoribus, servata in omnibus parcitate.

Next: 10For boys, indeed, of a minor age let not the same amount be reserved, but less than for them who are older, though sparingness is maintained among all.

Superius enim dixit infantes, et hic dixit pueris, quia non solum infantibus prospiciendum est, sed etiam pueris minori aetate. Bene dixit pueris minori aetate, quia de illis annis vult intelligi, qui prope infantiam sunt.

For earlier he said infants, and here he said for boys, because not only must care be taken for infants, but also for boys of a minor age. He was right to say for boys of a minor age, because he wishes it to be understood concerning those years which are close to infancy.

Sunt enim anni pueriles, qui prope infantiam sunt, veluti octavus, nonus, decimus, undecimus. Et iterum sunt alii anni pueriles, qui prope adolescentiam sunt, i. e. duodecimus, tertius decimus, quartus decimus, ac si diceret: Quantum plus sunt pueri prope infantiam, tantum etiam plus adjuvandi sunt, eo quod non est magnum robur in illis; et quantum sunt prope adolescentiam, tanto minus debet illis, quam infantibus, cibum tribuere.

For there are boyhood years which are close to infancy such as eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh. And, again, there are other boyhood years, which are close to adolescence, that is, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, as if he were to say: For how much longer boys are near infancy, so much the more they must also be supported, because of the fact that there is not great steadiness in them; and for how long they are near adolescence, by so much he ought to give less food to them than infants.

Pulchre dicit non eadem quantitas servetur, quia ille superius jam exposuerat in alimentis distinctionem illis non esse tenendam, sed praevenire horas canonicas.

He says nicely let not the same amount be reserved, because that man had already showed earlier that in foods the distinction should not be maintained for them but that times of worship come first.

Sic et nunc dicit de majoribus, ut non usque ad crapulam manducent, ac si diceret: Si tales majores sunt, qui se temperare nesciunt, priores delient illos temperare.

Thus, he now also says about them who are older to never eat to over-eating, as if he were to say: If they who are older are such as do not know how to control themselves, they who are before them ought to control those men.

Ita etiam nunc de infantibus dicit, eo quod pueri, cum ante reficiunt et post, si ita acceperint, sicut majores, crapulam patientur; ideo moderari illos debet cellararius, frequenter enim infantes debent refici, sed non nimis.

Thus, he now also says about infants, because of the fact that boys, when they take refreshment before and after, if they have taken it just as their elders, they will experience over-eating; on that account, the cellarer ought to put limits on those, for infants ought to take refreshment frequently, but not to excess.

Quod enim dicit in arbitrio consistat, non ad libitum abbatis laxavit, sed posuit frenum, cum dicit non non subripiat monacho indigeries, ac si diceret: non plus illis debet dare, quam oportet, nec minus, quia sicuti peccat, si plus dederit, ita etiam peccat, si minus, veluti de culpis et de judiciis et de vestimentis nec plus nec minus debet agere.

Because he says let it be in the judgment, he has not widened it to the pleasure of the abbot, but he has placed a restraint, when he says let indigestion not stealthily take a monk, as if he were to say: he ought not to give them more than is fitting, nor less, because, just as he is mistaken if he gives more, so he is also mistaken if less, just as he ought to act neither more nor less in regard to faults and judgments and vestments.

Hoc autem, quod dicit si labor forte factus fuerit, duobus modis considerari debet. Labor major est, si a prima usque ad vesperam laborant, sive etiam major est, si a secunda laboraverit usque ad nonam.

This, however, the fact he says if by chance hard work has been done, ought to be considered in two ways. Hard work is greater if they work from Prime up to evening, or it is also greater, if he worked from the second hour up to Nones.

Sequitur: 10servata in omnibus parcitate, i. e. tam in pueris quam etiam in majoribus debet servari parcitas, i. e. temperantia.

Next: 10although sparingness is maintained among all, that is, it ought to be maintained among boys just as among they who are older, namely sparingness, that is, self-control.

Sequitur: 11carnium vero quadrupedum omni modo ab omnibus abstineatur comestio praeter omnino debiles et aegrotos. [page 440]

Next: 11Let all, in fact, abstain in every way from the eating the flesh of four-footed animals, except those who are wholly weak and ill. [page 440]

Alii enim sunt debiles, alii vero aegroti. Aegroti etenim sunt, qui in infirmitate positi jacent in lecto; debiles sunt, qui ab infirmitate surgunt, sive etiam debiles sunt, qui febribus laborant, qui, quamvis non assidue jaceant, tamen quia ex febribus eorum carnis deficiunt, debiles dicuntur, veluti sunt ex febribus tertianis aut quartanis; debiles etiam sunt ex senectute, maxime tamen in decrepita aetate.

For some are weak, others are ill. For indeed they are ill who because they are in the state in sickness lie in bed; the weak are those who rise up from sickness, or the weak are also those who labor in fevers, who, although they do not continually lie down, nevertheless are called weak because their fleshes fails because of their fevers, just as those due to tertian fevers or quartan; there are also men weak from old age, yet most greatly in the decrepit time of life.

Quod autem dicit at ubi meliorati fuerint, ita intelligi debet, ut tantum denique debent manducare, donec possint suam obedientiam exercere, sicuti antea poterant, quam in infirmitate incidissent.

Moreover, the fact that he says but when they have become better ought to be understood so that they ought to eat in the end as much as they were able before they had fallen into infirmity, until they exercise compliance over themselves.

Iterum quod autem dicit qui ex uno non potest edere, ex alio reficiatur, intentio S. Benedicti manifestatur dicere, ut non possit monachus dicere: aliud volo pulmentum, si ex uno potest edere, et quaerere sibi aliud fieri ex debito, sed ex illo reficiatur, ex quo potest. Et hoc sciendum est, quia potest ex duobus refici, si valet, eo quod non est ejus intentio de hoc, ut si potest de ambobus edere pulmentis, ex uno tantum edat.

Again, because, moreover, he says who cannot eat from one takes refreshment from the other, the intention of Saint Benedict is shown clearly to state that a monk cannot say: I want another dish, if it if possible to eat from one, and to ask that something else be for himself with respect to the one that should; but let him take refreshment from that one from which he is able. And this must be known, because he can be refreshed from two, if he has the power, because of the fact that his intention is not about this, that, if he is able to eat from both dishes, he eat only from one.

Et quod ita sit, manifestatur, ubi dicit: addatur et tertium, quia nequaqnam dixisset, addi tertium, si solummodo voluisset edere de uno quemlibet, quamvis possit ex duobus edere.

And the fact that it is so is clearly shown when he says: let a third also be added, because he would not at all have said that a third was added if he had only wished that anyone eat from one, although he is able to eat from two.

Et hoc sciendum est, quia si ex uno non potest edere, detur ei, sicut diximus, de altero tantum videlicet, ut refici possit sicuti ex duobus, quia si de alio, unde illa generalitas adhuc non manducat, illi dederit, jam vitium est, eo quod tunc potest unusquisque pro ingonio dicere: 'non possum ex illo reficere cibo, sed volo ex alio.'

And this must be known, because, if he is not able to eat from one, it must be allowed for him, just as we have said, clearly [to eat] so much from the other, so that he be able to be refreshed just as from two. This is because, if he has granted it to that man [to eat] from another, from where that majority thus far is not eating, now it is a vice, because of the fact that each one can speak according to his inclination: ‘I am not able to take refreshment from that food, but I want to from the other.’

Ubi debet abbas valde prudenter intelligere, ut, si talis est, qui non possit veraciter ex ipso reficere uno, debet illi dare ex alio, sicut dictum est. Jam vero si ipse frater separatus fuerit a corpore congregationis, h. e. ut non possit ex ipsis duobus pulmentis, de quibus alii reficiunt, ipse comedere, tunc debet illi sicut infirmo in domo infirmorum praeparare cibum. Verumtamen melius est, ut ei in refectorio de illo cibo tribuat, unde in altero die generaliter ipsa congregatio comestura est, i. e. unde consuetudinem habet ipsa congregatio generaliter comedendi, eo quod non est rectum, ut pro tali ac tanta necessitate [page 441] monachus eat in domum infirmorum ad comedendum.

This is where the abbot ought very prudently to understand that if he is such a man who can truly not take refreshment from one itself he ought to allow that man [to eat] from the other, just as has been said. But now, if the brother himself has come to be separated from the body of the congregation, that is, so that he himself is not able to eat from the very two dishes from which the others take refreshment, then he ought to prepare food for that man as if a sick man in the house of the sick. Nevertheless, it is better that he give it to him from that food in the dining-hall, that is, from where on another day the congregation itself is generally going to eat, because of the fact that it is not right that on behalf of such and so great a necessity [page 441] a monk go into the house of the sick to eat.

Verum si talis et tanta est infirmitas stomachi, ut semper frater non possit comedere, unde alii comedere solent, tunc ducendus est in domum infirmorum propter honestatem. Si autem talis est, qui non semper, sed per intervallum contiugit, ut non possit edere, isti tali in refectorio debet praeparari cibus, sicut diximus, eo quod non est bonum, sicut jam dictum est, ut pro tanto ducatur in domo infirmorum.

But if such and so great is the sickness of the stomach, so that a brother is always unable to eat, from where the others are accustomed to eat, then he must be led to the house of the sick on account of respectability. If, however, he is such a man who not always, but intermittently, reaches [this state], so that he cannot eat, food ought to be prepared for such a man as that in the dining-hall, just as we have said, because of the fact that it is not good, just as has already been said, that in return for so much he be led in the house of the sick.

Quod vero dicit nascentia leguminum, non est intelligendum, ut primum aut secundum pulmentum non debeat esse de leguminibus, si coctum fuerit, eo quod cum de nascentia leguminum dicit, de germinantibus leguminibus crudis intelligitur dixisse, et ideo, quia de crudis leguminibus nascentibus dixit dari tertium, de coctis vero leguminibus omnimodo potest dici primum vel secundum pulmentum.

Indeed, the fact that he says seedlings of beans should not be understood so that the first or second dish ought not to be of beans, if it is cooked, because of the fact that when he speaks of the seedlings of beans, he is understood to have spoken about the raw sprouts of beans, and on that account, because he has said that a third is given from raw bean seedlings, it is altogether possible that a first or second dish of cooked beans is really talked about.

Quod autem dicit: Carnium vero quadrupedum omnimodo ab omnibus abstineatur comestio praeter omnino debiles aut aegrotos, intellexit ipse S. Benedictus plus dulces carnes habere volatilia, quam quadrupedia, sicut doctores dicunt et usus comprobat in eo, quod reges et principes propter majorem dulcediuem et suavitatem gustus post carnes quadrupedum in suis conviviis carnes volatilium praecipiunt sibi praeparari; et ideo propter suavitatem gustus, non propter numerum pedum abstinentes et poenitentes a carnibus omnibus abstinere noscuntur, maximeque cum Dominus post resurrectionem suam aliquando carnem comedisse excepto pisce non legitur.

As to the fact, however, that he says: Let all, in fact, abstain in every way from the eating of the flesh of four-footed animals, except those who are wholly weak and ill, Saint Benedict himself understood that fowl have sweeter flesh than four-footed animals, just as learned men say and practice confirms in this case, that kings and princes because of the greater sweetness and smoothness of flavor prefer second to the flesh for four-footed animals that the flesh of fowl be prepared for them at their feasts; and on that account, because of the smoothness of taste, not because of the number of feet, they are understood to abstain and regret abstaining from all flesh, and most of all when the Lord after his resurrection is not said to have eaten flesh once with the exception of fish.

Similiter et apostoli non leguntur aliquam carnem comedisse, et sicut historia ecclesiastica narrat, neque illi aliquam carnem manducabant, qui auctores monachorum tam verbo quam exemplo exstiterunt; ideo superius in capitulo, ubi de infirmis fratribus dicit, jubet, a carnibus more solito, exceptis infirmis, omnes abstinere propter stimulos carnis retundendos, eo quod stimuli carnis magis solent insurgere, ubi major dulcedo et major suavitas gustus in cibum percipitur.

Likewise, even the apostles are not said to have eaten any flesh, and just as ecclesiastical history tells, nor did those men eat any flesh who arose as founders of the monks in word as in deed; on that account, earlier in the chapter, when he speaks about sick brothers, he commands that all abstain in the customary manner from flesh, with the sick excepted, for the purpose of blunting the spurs of the flesh, because of the fact that the spurs of the flesh are more accustomed to flare up when greater sweetness and greater smoothness of taste is received into the food.

Et ideo jubent sancti monachi, sicut legitur in quinto libro Institutae Patrum, [Cassian, Institutiones V, SC 109, pp. 190-158] ubi de gastrimargia comprimenda docetur, sicut diximus, ut ille cibus [page 442] debeat esse monachorum, qui sustentationem tribuat vitae, non ille, qui occasionem concupiscentiis et vitiis subministrat. Unde etiam Paulus dicit: carnis curam ne feceritis in concupiecentiis. [Rm 13:14]

Also on that account, the blessed monks command, just as is written in the fifth book of the Rules of the Fathers, where there is the teaching about restraining gluttony, [cf. Cassian, Institutiones V] just as we have said, that that food [page 442] ought to be the monks’ which contributes sustenance to life, not that which helps lusts and vices by supplying opportunity. Whence even Paul says: You should not carry out concern for the flesh in lusts. [Rm 13:14]

Nunc autem ne forte monachi possint dicere: 'scimus enim, quia volatilium carnes non possumus nec debemus comedere, eo quod majorem dulcedinem et suavitatem gustus habent, quam quadrupedum carnes; tamen carnes quadrupedum possumus et debemus comedere, quia minorem dulcedinem et suavitatem gustus habent.' Propter hos tales occurrit S. Benedictes dicendo nominatim, ut carnes quadrupedum omnino comedere monachi non debeant, nisi pro infirmitate vel debilitate sua; quia sicut volatilium carnes pro sua dulcediue et suavitate gustus, quam habent, solent carnis provocare stimulos, ita etiam carnes quadrupedum pro sua fortitudine, quam habent, virtutem ipsis carnis stimulis ad perficiendum conferunt. Pisces autem possunt comedere, eo quod Dominus post resurrectionem suam legitur in evangelio piscem comedisse et sancti apostoli et sancti monachi similiter leguntur pisces comedisse; [cf. Io 21:1-13] et ideo mos et consuetudo non fuit, ut generaliter monachi sicut ab utrisque carnibus i. e. volatilium et quadrupedum abstinerent, ita etiam a piscibus. Caseum autem possumus comedere, eo quod ab illo non fuit mos generaliter abstinendi, sicut a volatilium et quadrupedum carnibus fuerat.

Now, however, so that the monks not, by chance, be able to say: ‘For we know, because we cannot, nor should we, eat the flesh of fowl, for the reason that they have greater sweetness and smoothness of taste than the flesh of four-footed animals, yet we can and ought to eat the flesh of four-footed animals, because they have less sweetness and smoothness of taste.' On account of such men as these, Saint Benedict anticipates by saying expressly that monks should not at all eat the flesh of four-footed animals, unless in conformance with sickness or his own weakness, because just as the flesh of fowl in proportion to the sweetness and smoothness of the flavor which they have are accustomed to provoke the spurs of the flesh, so also the flesh of four-footed animals in proportion to the strength which they have confer a capacity by the very spurs of the flesh for making whole. They can, however, eat fish, because of the fact that the Lord after his resurrection is said in the Gospel to have eaten fish and the holy apostles and the holy monks are likewise said to have eaten fish; [cf. Io 21:1-13] and yet, it has not been their manner and habit on that account, so that in general just as monks abstained from either of the types of flesh, that is of fowl and four-footed animals, so also from fish. We are able, however, to eat cheese, for the reason that there has not generally been a custom of abstaining from that, as there had been from the meats of fowl and four-footed animals.

Nam legitur in Collatione, in qua de abbate Joanne dicitur, ubi leguntur monachi eremitae caseum aegyptiacum comedisse. [cf. Cassian, Collationes XIX, c. 6, SC ???, p. ?]

For it is read in the Collations in which it is said about the abbot John, where there are readings that hermit-monks ate Egyptian cheese. [cf. Cassian, Collationes XIX, c. 6, tr. Boniface Ramsey, p. 673]

Libra sicut Isidorus dicit, 12 unciis perficitur et inde habetur perfecti ponderis genus, quia tot constat unciis, quot mensibus annus. Dicta autem libra, quod sit libera et cuncta intra se pondera praedicta concludat. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae 16, c. 25.20]

A pound as Isidorus says is a whole of 12 ounces and, from that, the kind of whole weight is understood, because it consists as many ounces as the year months. Moreover, it has been named a pound, because it is free and contains the rest of the aforementioned weights within itself. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XVI, c. 25.20]

Item: Legumina a legendo dicta quasi electa; veteres enim meliora quaeque legebant, sive quod manu legantur neque sectionem requirant, Leguminum plurima genera inveniuntur, ex quibus faba, lenticula, pisum, faselus, cicer, lupinus, gratiora in hominum usum [page 443] videntur. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XVII, c. 4.1-2]

Likewise: Beans are named from collecting as if they have been chosen out; for our ancestors used to say that all those things they collected were better, whether because they were collected by hand and did not require cutting. Very many kinds of beans are found, of which the fava, lentil, pea, Egyptian bean, chickpea, lupin, seem [page 443] to be quite agreeable to the use of men. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XVII, c. 4.1-2]

Item: Panis dictus, quod cum cibo apponatur, vel quod omne animal eum appetat; πάν enim graece omne dicitur. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XX, c. 2.15]

Likewise: Bread has been named because it is put on the table with food, or because every animal is eager for it; for every in Greek is called “πᾶν” . [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XX c. 2. n. 15.]

Item: Carnes dictae sunt, quia carae sunt, sive a creando; unde et a graecis xρέας vocatur. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae X c. 2. 20]

Likewise: They are named flesh because they are dear, or from creating; whence even by the Greeks it is called “κρέας” . [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XX, c. 2. 20.]

Item: Caseus vocatur, quod careat sero quasi careum; nam serum ei omne deducitur, ut ponderibus arguatur. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XX, c. 2. 33]

Likewise: It is called cheese because it lacks whey as if decay(?); for all whey is drawn out of it as can be proven by scale weights. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XX, c. 2.33]

Item: Quadrupedia vocata, quia quatuor pedibus gradiuntur, quae dum similia sint pecoribus, tamen sub cura humana non sunt, ut cervi, onagri, damae et cet. sed neque bestiae sunt, ut leones, neque jumenta, ut usus hominum juvare possint. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XII. c. 4.4]

Likewise: They are named four-footed animals, because they walk with four feet, which, while they are similar to cattle, nonetheless they are not under human care, such as deer, wild asses, fallow-deer, and others. But neither are beasts, such as lions, nor beasts of burden that can help the needs of men. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XII. c. 4.4]

Item: Coena vocatur a communione vescentium; coenon (χοινόν) quippe graeci commune diciunt, unde et communicantes, quod communiter, i. e. pariter conveniant. Apud veteres enim soliti erant in propatulo vesci et communiter epulari, ne singularitas luxuriam gigneret.  [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XX. c. 2.14]

Likewise: It is named dinner from the communion of eaters; the Greeks, to be sure, call common coenon (κοινὸν) whence also the communicantes, because in common, that is, at the same time, they come together. For in the time of our ancestors they had been accustomed to eat in an open space and to feast in common in order that singularity might not beget luxury. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XX. c. 2.14]

Est autem coena vespertinus cibus, quam vespernam antiqui dicebant; in usu enim non erant prandia. Cibus dictus est, quia capitur ore, sicut esca, quia eam os capit. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XX, c. 2.1]

The evening meal, moreover, is dinner, which the ancients used to call evening, for lunches were not in use. It is called food, because it is taken by mouth, just as victuals, because the mouth takes it. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae XX, c. 2.1]

Item: Debilis dicitur, quod per bilem factus sit fragilis; bilis enim humor est afficiens corpus. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae X, c. 71]

Likewise: He is called weak, because he has become shaky through black bile; for bile is the humor that adversely affects the body. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae X, c. 71]

1. intelligant (?), intelligitur. Cod. Divion. ex Marten. (Mittermüller).
2. sufficere (?). (Mittermüller).
3. fuerit (?). (Mittermüller).
4. Hildemar omits: quod si cenaturi sunt, de eadem libra.

1. Intelligitur.

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