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[Ms P, fol. 129v - Paulus Diaconus
Ps.-Basil: Ms K1, fol. 129r; Ms E1, fol. 145v; Ms E2, fol. 222r]

Ch. 46

Translated by: John Terry and Bruce Venarde

Bene, postquam dixerat de satisfactione tam gravium quam levium culparum [Regula Benedicti, c. 34-35] et satisfactione fallentium in oratoria [Regula Benedicti, c. 45], dicit nunc etiam de satisfactione illorum, qui in aliquibus rebus delinquunt, ut, quod deerat sibi, unumquodque capitulum suppleret vicinitate conjunctum, ut, sicut sensu sibi junguntur, jungerentur etiam ordine.

Very well, after he had spoken on satisfaction for greater as well as lesser faults [cf. Regula Benedicti, c. 34-35] and satisfaction for those making mistakes in the oratory [cf. Regula Benedicti, c. 45], he speaks now on satisfaction for those persons, who fail in some matter or another, so that what is lacking in each chapter one added beside it it might supply, in order that just as chapters are joined together by sense, they are also joined in a series.1

Sequitur: 1Si quis dum in labore quovis, in coquina, in cellario, in ministerio, in pistrino, in horto, in aliqua arte, dum laborat, vel in quocunque loco aliquid deliquerit 2aut fregerit quidquam aut perdiderit, seu aliud quid excesserit, ubi et ubi, 3et non veniens continuo ante abbatem vel congregationem ipse ultra satisfecerit et prodiderit delictum suum, 4dum per alium cognitum fuerit, majori subjaceat emendationi.

It follows: 1If someone is doing some kind of work, in the kitchen, in the cellar, in serving [meals], in the bakery, in the garden, in any sort of craft, or in any other place makes a some mistake, 2or breaks or loses something, or exceeds in any way anywhere, 3and he himself does not go directly to the abbot and the community and make satisfaction and confess the fault, 4when it becomes known through another, he should be subject to a more severe correction.

Sciendum est enim, quia non est bonum, ut aliis habeatur, eo quod si aliis habetur, videtur officium divinum leve esse.

It should be understood that it is not good that others bring it forth, because if brought forth by others, divine duty seems to be trivial.

Deliquerit attinet ad versare aliquid, fregerit ad rumpere aliquid, excesserit attinet ad sonum facere veluti in refectorio cum cuppa vel cultello, vel etiam cum cochleare in terram ceciderit, vel super mensam aliquis sonus factus fuerit. Excedere enim est modum transire; ubi enim modum quis transit, tunc excedit.

Makes a mistake [deliquerit] pertains to changing something; ‘breaks’ [fregerit] to ruining something; exceeds [excesserit] to making a sound as in the refectory with a cup or little knife, or even when a spoon falls to the ground, or any sound is made on the table. To exceed [excedere] is to cross a line, for where one crosses a line away, at that moment he exceeds.

Excedere enim est metas sive [page 472] modos transire; sive etiam excedere ad verba attinet, si alicui verbum durum dicit; verbi gratia habes injunctum officium aliquod super famulos aut super fratres, et pro increpationo plus dixisti illis increpationem, quam oportuit, sive forte irato animo dixisti alicui homini etiam non tibi subjecto verbum durum, et similia. Debes pro hujuscemodi excessibus abbati soli confiteri secrete.

 To exceed [excedere] is to go beyond [page 472] boundaries or lines, whether excedere pertains to words, if one speaks harsh words to anyone: for instance, if you have a certain duty enjoined upon you concerning servants or brothers and as a reproach you have said to them more of a reproach than is proper, or if perhaps in an angry spirit said a harsh word to someone not subject to you, and similar things. For such excesses, you should confess privately to the abbot alone.

Similiter si forte, cum incidis panem et incideris melotem aut saricam aut aliquod vestimentum, tunc abbati soli debes confiteri, et ille debet te investigare, utrum jocando fecisti aut pro aliqua negligentia agendo. Deinde si ille viderit, quia non pro joco factum fuerit, potest tibi dimittere; si autem pro joco, unde sine poenitentia non potest dimitti, tunc debet tibi dicere: pete veniam in capitulo secundum regulam, ut accipias judicium regulare.

Similarly, if by chance you cut bread or cowl or a cloak or any other type of vestment, then you should confess only to the abbot, and he should examine you as to whether you did it jokingly or in some carelessness or another. Then if he sees that was not done jokingly, it is possible for him to pardon you; but if it was not a joke and therefore cannot be pardoned without penance, then he should tell you: Seek pardon in chapter according to the rule, so that you can accept regular judgment.

Sequitur: 5Si animae vero peccati causa fuerit latens, tantum abbati aut spiritualibus senioribus patefaciat, 6qui sciant curare sua et aliena vulnera non detegere et publicare.

It follows: 5If the cause of sin lies hidden in the soul, then he should disclose it only to the abbot or a spiritual superior, 6who knows [how] to cure his and others’ weaknesses, not revealing or publicizing them.

lstud enim, quod dicit non detegere et publicare - detegere attinet ad discooperire aliquod peccatum, quod est latens, publicare autem attinet ad palandum1 sive ad manifestationem peccati, quod est occultum; et postea illum manifestum patefacit.

That is, when he says, not revealing or publicizing them, to reveal [detegere] pertains to exposing a certain sin that lies hidden; to publicize [publicare] also pertains to divulging or revealing of a sin that secret; and afterward he discloses it openly.

Quod autem dicit non veniens continuo, ita intelligendum est: non dicit, ut statim deserat illam obedientiam et veniat nunciare, sed hora, qua debet venire, veniat, et tum: nunciet; propterea dicit veniens, quasi de futuro. Si forte venerit ante alius, qui nunciaverit, non debet illi fratri imputari in malum, sed tunc debet reputari in malum fratri, cum venerit et noluerit manifestare in spatio termini sui. Debet enim abbas propter malevolos et invidos constituere tempus, quando, qui excessit aliquid vel fregerit, pro suo excessu veniam petat.

But when he says, if he does not go directly, it should be understood thus: [Benedict] does not say that he should at once leave his task and come to report it, but let him come at the hour at which he should come, let him come, and then report it; therefore he says, go [veniens], as if about the future. If perchance another comes before and reports it, no evil should be assigned to that [sinning] brother, but evil should be assigned to him when he comes and refuses to disclose it in due time. Thus the abbot should establish a period of time for the malevolent and envious, during which, if one exceeds or breaks something, he might ask pardon for his excess.

Verbi gratia: si hodie excesserit, crastino die veniam petat.

For example: if he exceeds today, he should seek pardon tomorrow.

Ideo dixi propter invidos et malevolos, quia sunt multi mali, qui, cum vident damnum aut excessum factum, statim ante cedunt et nuntiant abbati, quatenus ille, qui excessit, majori [page 473] vindictae subjaceat, sicut regula dicit: dum per alium cognitum fuerit, majori subjaceat emendationi.

I said, on behalf of the malevolent and hateful for this reason: because there are many evil men, who, when they see an injury or excess made, at once go ahead and report it to the abbot, so that he who has exceeded [page 473] is subject to greater punishment, just as the Rule says: then if it has become known through another, he should be subjected to a more severe correction.

Ac per hoc, si quilibet ante tempus veniae petendae, hoc est, ante capitulum alterius diei nunciaverit, frater ille, qui excessit, non teneatur culpabilis adhuc in eo, quod non manifestavit delictum suum. Si vero in statuto tempore veniam non petierit, et postea alter nunciaverit abbati, tunc ille, qui neglexerit veniam petere, debet utique subjacere majori emendationi, sicut regula dicit.

And for this [reason], if anyone should report it before the time for asking pardon, that is, before the next day’s chapter, the brother who exceeds should not yet be thought guilty because he did not make his fault known. But if he does not seek pardon in the stated period of time, and afterwards another reports it to the abbot, then he who neglected to seek pardon, should at any rate be subject to more severe correction, just as the Rule says.

Hoc notandum est, quia si ad lectum perdiderit, non est inde venia petenda. Si autem parva res fuerit, veluti est unum cochleare olei vel phiala vini, debet abbati solummodo nuntiare et veniam petere. Si autem majus damnum est, quod facit, quia non potest sine judicio dimitti, tunc debet ante congregationem abbati veniam petere.

This needs to be noted, because if he should ruin something in bed, no pardon need therefore be sought [in chapter]. If moreover it is a small matter, like a spoonful of oil or a little bowl of wine, he should report it to the abbot alone and seek pardon. If however it is a greater wrong that he does, because he cannot be pardoned without sentence, then he should go to the abbot before the community for pardon.

Deinde si cognoverit, majus esse damnum, debet judicare, ut in oratorio satisfaciat, sicut de minoribus culpis S. Benedictus judicavit, i. e. si fratros ad sextam, ille ad nonam, et si fratres ad nonam, ille ad vesperam et ita satisfacere, sicut ille judicavit in XLIV capitulo; dicit enim: qui vero pro levibus culpis excommunicantur tantum a mensa, in oratorio satisfaciant usque ad jussionem abbatis [Regula Benedicti, c. 44, 9].

Thereafter if [the abbot] recognizes it to be a greater wrong, he should sentence [the sinning brother] to make satisfaction in the oratory, just as St. Benedict judged concern lesser faults, that is, if the brothers [eat] at the sixth hour, he [eats] at the ninth, and if the brothers [eat] at the ninth hour, he [eats] in the evening and make satisfaction in this way as [Benedict] decreed in chapter 44; he says: Whoever is excommunicated for lesser faults should be excluded only from the table and make satisfaction in the oratory until the abbot tells him [to stop] [Regula Benedicti, c. 44, 9].

Deinde si viderit abbas, non grandem esse culpam, debet illum judicare ad unum officium poenitere; si autem major est culpa, veluti cognoscit culpam et intentionem peccantis, ita debet extendere vel minuere judicium.

Thereafter if the abbot sees that it is not a great fault, he should sentence him to make penance for one [prayer] office; but if it is a greater fault, he should increase or decrease the sentence according to his knowledge the sin and the intent of the sinner.

Et hoc non est mirum, quia pro una phiala vini, quam versavit, vel unum cochleare olei2 dixi, poenitentia subjacere, eo quod res monasterii, sicut regula dicit [Regula Benedicti, c. 32], sancta est et nimis diligenter debet tractari; unde legitur in libro quarto institutae patrum, qualiter monachus pro tribus granis leuticulis poenitentia subjectus fuit, quae hebdumadario festinanti, dum eam praeparat coctioni, inter manus cum aqua, qua diluebantur, elapsa sunt [cf. Cassian, Institutiones IV, c. 20].

And it is no wonder for [that one is] subject to repentance, for one bowl of wine that he spilled, or one spoonful of oil, [as] I said, because property of the monastery, just as the Rule says [cf. Regula Benedicti, c. 32], is sacred and should be dealt with very carefully; thus we read in the fourth book of the Instituta patrum, how a monk was subjected to penance for three little lentils that, as he hastened in his weekly duty, slipped through his hand along with the water in which he was cooking them [cf. Cassian, Institutiones IV, c. 20].

Quodsi vero tam parvum fuerit damnum, unde non potest veniam petere, debet ei injungere, cantare duos [page 474] vel tres aut quatuor psalmos. Sciendum est enim, quia in eo, quod dicit excesserit, potest etiam intelligi oblivio alicujus rei, quae oblita est.

But if it is so small a fault that he cannot seek pardon [in chapter], [the abbot] should enjoin on him to sing two [page 474] or three or four psalms. It should be understood that when he says he will have exceeded  [excesserit] can be understood as forgetting anything that was forgotten.

Verumtamen in hac oblivione discretio necessaria est, quia non omnis res aequalis est; verbi gratia si magna et sancta est res et in rustico loco, i. e. non congruo, oblita est, tunc debet veniam petere, non tantum, quia oblivioni tradidit, sed etiam, quod in rustico loco eam posuit. Si autem ipsa res in loco mundo, hoc est in loco sibi congruo et apto posita fuerit et oblivioni tradita, non intelligo, pro hoc cum debere veniam petere, quia superius non dixi, eum veniam petere pro eo, quod oblitus est, sed pro eo, quod in rustico loco posuit.

However, discernment is necessary in this forgetfulness, because not everything is equal; for example, if a great and holy thing is forgotten in a rustic, that is, unsuitable place, [if] it is forgotten, then it he should ask for pardon, not just because he forgot it, but also because he put it in a rustic place. If however the thing itself is in a pure place, that is, put in a place appropriate and fitting for it, and then forgotten, I do not understand, when he would seek pardon for this, because I did not say above, to request pardon because it was forgotten, but because he put it in a rustic place.

Quod autem dicit majori vindietae subjaceat, ita intelligi debet: i. e. verbi gratia, si debuit antea ad unum officium veniam petere, postea petat ad duo et reliq. Similiter si per duos dies poenitere debuit antea, postea per quatuor et reliq.

When it says he should be subjected to the greater punishment, it should be understood thus: that is, for example, he should have earlier sought pardon for one office, afterwards he should seek it for two and so on. Similarly, if before he should have made penance for two days, afterwards he should make it for four and so on.

Si autem in refectorio excedit, ita agendum est: si parum excedit, i. e. si cochleare cadit aut cultellus aut cuppa, et faciunt sonum, si in tali loco sedet, ut non possit surgere, ut petat veniam pro aliis, eo quod non potest exire, tunc debet surgere et flectere cervicem; si autem tali loco sedet, ut possit exire, tunc debet exire.

If, however, he exceeds in the refectory, it should be done thus: if he exceeds a little, that is, if a spoon, little knife or cup should fall, and they make a sound, if he sits in such a place that he is not able to get out to seek pardon from the others, because he cannot get out, then he should rise and bow his neck; if he sits in such a place so that he can get out, then he should do so.

Abbas autem, si parvus sonus faetus est, debet illi innuere, ut non petat veniam; si autem grandis sonus factus est, tunc debet ante abbatem veniam petere, ille autem, qui non potuit exire, si grandis sonus fuit, tunc, postquam surrexerint a mensa, veniam petere debet in refectorio ante abbatem propter illud, quod dicit regula non veniens continuo ante abbatem et reliq.

If a small sound is made, the abbot should nod to him that he ought not seek pardon; if, however, a great sound is made, then he should seek pardon before the abbot. He, however, who is not able get himself out, if he makes a great sound, then after they rise from the table, he should seek pardon in the refectory before the abbot for that reason, because the Rule says does not go directly to the abbot and so on.

Infant es vero vel etiam qui sub custodia sunt, si sonum in refectorio fecerint aut rumpunt vel perdunt aliquid, veniam debent petere sicuti majores.

But if children or those under watch make a sound in the refectory or break or lose anything, they should ask pardon just like adults.

1. propalandum (?). (Mittermüller).
2. pro uno cochleari olei (?). (Mittermüller).

1. Unclear.

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