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Cap. V

[Ms P, fol. 53rPaulus Diaconus – 
Ps.-Basil: Ms K2, fol. 116r; Ms E1, fol. 55v; Ms. E2, fol. 75r]

Ch. 5

Translated by: Sven Meeder

Rectum ordinem tenuit B. Benedictus in hoc loco, cum dicit, 1Primum gradum humilitatis esse obedientiam, cum superius dixit: De Dei misericordia numquam desperare, [Regula Benedicti, c. 4.73] eo quod per obedientiam nos ad Dei misericordiam revocat, a cujus bonitate per inobedientiam recessimus. Et ideo primum instrumentum obedientiam posuit, quia, sicut fuit prima malitia inobedientia, per quam recessimus a Deo, ita primum gradum dixit esse revertendi ad Deum, cum primum instrumentum posuit, obedientiam. Cum dicit de obedientia, subaudiendum est: tractemus aut disputemus. Humilis autem dicitur quasi humo acclinis. Nam sunt multi, qui, quamvis in coelum respiciant, tamen caput ante Deum inclinant, eo quod cinerem et pulverem se esse existimant, quia unusquisque homo in terram revertitur et in cinerem redigitur.

The blessed Benedict held the right order on this subject, when he says, 1The first step of humility is obedience, as he has said above: never to despair of God’s mercy [Regula Benedicti, c. 4.73] because he calls us back to the mercy of God through obedience, from whose goodness we have withdrawn by way of disobedience. And therefore he has laid down the first instrument of obedience, because, just as the principal fault is disobedience through which we have withdrawn from God, so he has said that the first step to return to God is obedience, when he classified it the first instrument. When he speaks of obedience, one is to understand: we should discuss and debate. But 'humble' [humilis] is said to be like ‘resting on the ground’ [humo acclinis]. For there are many who, while they gaze up to heaven, still bow their head before God, because they consider themselves to be ashes and dust, since anyone man returns to the earth and is reduced to ashes.

Sequitur: 1Primus humilitatis gradus est obedientia sine mora.

It goes on: 1The first step of humility is obedience without delay.

In hoc enim loco, cum dicit primus, oritur quaestio, quare dixit primus, cum non sequitur secundus. Sunt enim alii, qui dicunt, primum in hoc loco positum esse pro magnitudino vel pro solo, veluti est illud: Primum quaeritur regnum Dei. (Primum ponitur pro magnitudine vel solo.) Alii iterum dicunt: non potest esse pro magnitudine vel pro solo, quia inferius subsequitur S. Benedictus [page 185]: timorem gehennae et arctam viam; nam qui timore poenae vel temporalis seu aeternae servit vel obedit Domino, non est perfectus; et ille, cui est arcta via obedientia, non est perfectus. Sed primus in ordine positus est; (quia) quamvis1 inferius dicit S. Benedictus iterum: Primus humilitatis gradus est, non officit, quia mos est sanctorum praedicatorum, semel, bis aut ter dicere unum eundenique sermonem, verbi gratia dicunt: Ante omnia caritatem mutuam habete, [cf. 1 Pt 4:8] post hinc praedicant alia et iterum subjungunt: ante omnia humilitatem habete, et reliqua. Ita et S. Benedictus in hoc loco facere videtur, cum hic dicit: Primus humilitatis gradus est, et iterum inferius subjungit: Primus humilitatis gradus est.

For in this place, since it says first, the question arises why he said first, since there follows no second. For there are some, who say that first is written in that place to denote importance or to denote uniqueness, as if it is (like) this: First the kingdom of God is found. (First is written to denote importance or uniqueness.) Others on the other hand say: it cannot be because of importance or uniqueness, because St Benedict later continues: [page 185] the fear of hell and the narrow road; for he who serves or obeys the Lord because of fear for temporary or eternal punishment is not perfect; and he for whom obedience is a narrow road is not perfect. But it is placed first in order; (because) although St Benedict later says: the first step of humility is, it does not impede, because it is the custom of holy preachers, on occasion, to say the same word twice or three times, speaking for example: Before all else have mutual charity, [cf. 1 Pt 4:8] after this they preach other things and combine this again with: ‘Before all else have humility’, and so on. Thus also St Benedict appears to do in this instance: when he says here: the first step of humility is and later on states again: the first step of humility is.

Nunc videndum est, quare nunc dicit humilitatis, cum clavis istius capituli de obedientia dicit? Opus enim fuit, ut diceret, primum obedientiae gradum esse. Ideo dixit humilitatis, quia istae tres virtutes, i. e. caritas, humilitas et obedientia adeo sunt sibi conjunctae, ut una sine altera esse nequeat; nam ubi obedientia est, ibi humilitas et caritas et reliqua, sicut superius diximus.

Now we must find out why he says of humility, when he says [it is] the key to this chapter on obedience. For it was necessary, as he has said, that it is the first step of obedience. Therefore, he spoke of humility, because these three virtues – that is charity, humility, and obedience – are thus connected together, so that one cannot exist without the other; for where there is obedience, there is also humility and charity and so on, as we have said above.

Gradus intelligitur ascensio vel scansio.

Step is understood as a degree or a rising climb.

Obedientia sine mora. Obedientia dicta est quasi obaudientia, quia quod audit sermone, opere complet.

Obedience without delay. Obedience is said similar to ‘audience’, because what one hears through words, one perfects in labour.

Et bene dixit, primum humilitatis gradum esse obedientiam, quia primum per superbiam et inobedientiam a regno Dei et a beatitudine expulsi sumus aeterna, et ideo per humilitatem et obedientiam eadem coelestis regni gaudia repetere debemus.

And well he said the first step of humility to be obedience, because at first we are banished from the kingdom of God and from eternal blessedness through pride and disobedience, and thus through humility and obedience we must strive to regain the same joy of the heavenly kingdom.

Sunt enim multi, qui videntur coram hominibus sine mora, i. e. sine tarditate agere obedientiam, tamen coram Deo cum mora agunt, i. e. aut pro vana gloria, aut pro timore, aut certe pro alia aliqua ratione obediunt. Iterum sunt alii, qui cum mora coram hominibus videntur obedire, tamen coram Deo sine mora obediunt, quia pro impossibilitate hoc faciunt. Isti tales probandi sunt. Probandus est ille, qui sine mora obedit coram hominibus isto modo: ut securus sit abbas de illo, coram Deo debet illum admonere, [page 186] ne hoc, quod facit, non pro vana gloria aut pro timore faciat. Et ut securior sit, debet illum probare in aliis operibus.

For there are many, who in the sight of men appear (to act) without delay, that is to effect obedience without stalling, yet in the sight of God they act with delay, that is they obey either for vainglory, or out of fear, or really for some other reason. Again there are others, who in the sight of men appear to obey with delay, yet in the sight of God obey without delay, because they do so through impossibility. Such men are to be approved. He is approved, who in this way obeys without delay in the sight of men: for if the abbot is untroubled about him, he must admonish him in the sight of God [page 186] that that which he does he should not do for vainglory or out of fear. And so that he may be even more untroubled, he must approve him in other works.

Si illum cognoverit studiosum esse in lectione, in mortificatione, in jejunio et reliq., tunc potest causa Dei etiam sine mora obediens esse. Quodsi illum non cognoverit esse studiosum in aliis rebus, poterit etiam suspicari, non ejus intentionem sanam esse in hoc loco. Illum vero, qui videtur cum mora agere obedientiam, potest isto modo abbas probare, i. e. debet cognoscere, qualis sit illa obedientia, quae illi injungitur a decano aut praeposito vel ab aliquo priore.

If he seen to be eager for reading, for humiliation, for fasting and so on, then in that cause for God he can be obedient without delay. But if he is not seen to be eager in other things, it could actually be suspected that his intention is not sound in this place. In that manner the abbot can truly test him who appears to conduct obedience with delay, that is, he must get to know what that obedience is like, which is imposed upon him by a deacon or a superior or some elder.

Si cognoverit, illam obedientiam esse rectam et bonam, tunc debet illum interrogare, quare cum mora obedit. Ille vero si dixerit: 'causa impossibilitatis hoc ago,' iterum debet illum probare in aliis rebus, i. e. si invenerit illum studiosum et mortificatum in aliis operibus, tunc poterit illum cognoscere causa impossibilitatis hoc agere; si autem cognoverit, illum non studiosum esse, tunc poterit in illo suspicari, hoc desidiae causa agere, et postea, prout cognoverit abbas illum delinquere, potest illum regulari disciplina constringere.

If he has learned that this obedience is right and good, then he must interrogate him why he obeys with delay. If he verily said: 'I do this by cause of impossibility', he must test him again in other matters, that is if he finds him to be eager and ascetic in other works, then he can know him to be doing this out of impossibility; if, however, he has learned that he is not eager, then he can be suspected in this to do so out of idleness, and afterwards, just as the abbot learned that he is failing, he can restrain him with discipline of the rule.

Vide modo: Sunt duo fratres, qui audiunt signum pulsare; unus est ex illis servitor infirmorum et tempore, quo audit signum, tenet infirmum in manibus et non potest illum dimittere et currere, et tamen voluntatem habet eundi, si non impediretur. Iste talis si coram hominibus videatur cum mora agere, tamen coram Deo non agit moram.

See here: There are two brothers, who hear a bell ringing; one of them is a caretaker of the sick and at the time he hears the clock, he has a sick person in his hands and can not send him away and run, and yet he has the will to go, if he had not been hindered. In this way in the sight of men he may appear to be acting with delay, but in the sight of God he acts without delay.

Similiter qui hospiti servit et reliqua. Et est alter, qui non habet aliquam obedientiam, in qua impeditus existat, ut hora signi pulsati pro hoc non valeat currere; cum audit signum, currit statim pro timore, ne excommunicetur. Iste talis, si videatur coram hominibus sine mora currere, tamen coram Deo cum mora agit.

Similarly he who cares for guests and so on. There is also the other [brother], who does not have any obedience, in which he proves to be hindered, so that at the hour of the sounding bell he prevails not to run for this; when he hears the bell, he runs immediately out of fear to be excommunicated. In this way, if he appears in the sight of men to run without delay, yet in the sight of God he acts with delay.

Sequitur: Nunc quasi interrogasses S. Benedictum dicens: ‘Pater Benedicte! cui convenit obedientia sine mora, i. e. sine tarditate?’ ille autem quasi respondens dicit: 2Haec convenit his, qui nihil sibi Christo carius aliquid existimant.

It goes on: Now if you had said, as in some interrogation of St Benedict: ‘Father Benedict! To whom is obedience without delay, that is without slowness, fitting?’ He, however, says as if responding: 2This is fitting to those, who judge nothing dearer to them than Christ.

Cum dicit haec, subaudis: obedientia ista sine mora, ac si diceret aliis verbis: ista obedientia sine mora, quam [page 187] dixi, illis hominibus convenit, qui nullam rem amant plus quam Christum.

When he says this, you must understand: that obedience without delay, and if he had said it with other words, this obedience without delay, [page 187] as I say, is fitting to those men, who love nothing more than Christ.

Sequitur: 3Propter servitium sanctum, quod professi sunt, seu propter metum gehennae vel gloriam vitae aeternae 4mox, ut aliquid imperatum a majore fuerit, ac si divinitus imperetur, moram pati nesciant in faciendo.

It goes on: 3Because of the holy service they have professed, the fear of hell, and the glory of eternal life, 4let them do what a superior orders immediately, as if the order is from heaven, and let them endure no delay in doing it.

Sunt enim multi, qui ita conjungunt: Primus humilitatis gradus est obedientia sine mora; hic versum faciunt vel distinctionem; deinde subjuugunt: haec convenit his, qui nihil sibi Christo carius aliquid existimant propter servitium sanctum, quod professi sunt seu propter metum gehennae vel gloriam vitae aeternae.

For there are many, who relate this thus to: the first step of humility is obedience without delay; here they compose line, or a distinction; afterwards they unite it with: this is fitting for those, who judge nothing dearer to them than Christ, because of the holy service they have professed, the fear of hell, and the glory of eternal life.

Sed non videtur conveniens esse haec conjunctio, i. e. distinctio, eo quod (cum dicit: qui nihil sibi Christo carius aliquid existimant et subjungit metum gehennae), qui amore Christi obedit, non potest timore gehennae obedire. Sed melius videtur, ut timor separetur gehennae ab amore Christi et ita separatis legatur ita: Primus humilitatis gradus est obedientia sine mora; haec convenit his, qui nihil sibi Christo carius aliquid existimant.

But this link does not seem to fit, that is the distinction, because (when one says: those judging nothing dearer to them than Christ and link it with fear of hell) he who obeys through the love for Christ, cannot obey through the fear of hell. So it seems better, that the fear of hell is separated from the love for Christ and thus separated it is read a such: the first step of humility is obedience without delay; this is fitting to those, who judge nothing dearer to them than Christ.

Deinde divise debet legere: Propter servitium sanctum, quod professi sunt, seu propter metum gehennae vel gloriam vitae aeternae mox, ut aliquid a majore imperatum fuerit, ac si divinitus imperetur, moram pati nesciant in faciendo, ut sit constructio talis: nesciant moram pati in faciendo; reddit causam, quare non debeant moram pati: propter servitium sanctum, quod professi sunt seu metum gehennae vel gloriam vitae aeternae.

After the break one must read: because of the holy service they have professed, because of the fear of hell or the glory of eternal life, let anything ordered by a superior be done immediately, as if the order is from heaven, let them endure no delay in doing it, so that the construction is as such: let them not endure delay in doing it; it supplies the reason why they must not endure delay: Because of the holy service they have professed, the fear of hell, and the glory of eternal life.

Et hoc notandum est, quia istud, quod dicit: Haec convenit his, qui nihil sibi Christo carius aliquid existimant, praelocutio est.

And this must be noted, because it is the introduction to that what says: this is fitting to those, who judge nothing dearer to them than Christ.

Haec convenit his, qui nihil sibi Christo carius aliquid existimant, i. e. qui in duodecimo gradu sunt. [cf. Regula Benedicti, c. 7.62-66]

This is fitting to those, who judge nothing dearer to them than Christ, that is those who are in the twelfth degree. [cf. Regula Benedicti c. 7:62-66]

Istud autem, quod subsequitur: Propter servitium sanctum, quod professi sunt seu propter metum gehennae vel gloriam vitae aeternae, ordinat et exponit, qualiter ad illam perfectionem veniant, i. e. ad duodecimum gradum. Sed quid faciant? ac si diceret: sed mox, i. e. statim obediant, ut imperatum fuerit, ac si divinitus imperetur.

That what follows, however: because of the holy service they have professed, the fear of hell, and the glory of eternal life, arranges and explains how one arrives at this perfection, that is at the twelfth degree. But what should they do? And if it is said: but they should obey immediately, that is at once, when it is ordered, and if the order is from heaven.

Sunt enim multi, qui ob hoc obediunt: propter timorem gehennae, et non propter [page 188] servitium sanctum aut gloriam.

For there are many, who obey on account of this: because of fear for hell, and not because [page 188] of holy service or glory.

Gehenna intelligitur poena, tam temporalis quam aeterna.

Hell is understood as punishment, as much temporary as eternal.

Et iterum sunt alii, qui solummodo ob hoc obediunt: propter servitium sanctum, quod professi sunt, i. e. propter observationem regulae, quam servare promiserunt, cum de stabilitate et obedientia et conversatione morum suorum promiserit, [cf. Regula Benedicti, c. 58.17] quia ista tria professi sunt; et hoc est servitium sanctum, quod professi sunt, ne inveniantur fallaces coram Deo et non propter timorem gehennae vel gloriam vitae aeternae.

And on the other hand there are others, who merely obey on account of this: because of holy service, which they have professed, that is through the observation of a rule, which they have promised to uphold, when they promised concerning stability, religious life and ways and obedience, [cf. Regula Benedicti, c. 58.17] because they professed those three things; and this is the holy service, which they have professed, lest the deceitful are found in the face of God and not because of fear of hell or the glory of eternal life.

Et iterum sunt alii, qui solummodo serviunt Deo propter gloriam vitae aeternae, et non propter metum gehennae vel propter servitium sanctum; qui enim propter timorem poenae serviunt Deo, non sunt boni ad comparationem istorum, qui propter servitium sanctum serviunt Deo, eo quod servi sunt, quia pro timore poenae serviunt; et iterum ad comparationem istorum, qui propter metum serviunt, meliores sunt illi, qui propter servitium sanctum serviunt; et iterum meliores sunt illi, qui propter amorem haereditatis, i. e. propter gloriam vitae aeternae serviunt Deo ad comparationem istorum, qui propter sanctum servitium serviunt; deinde jam meliores sunt illi, qui pro amore Dei serviunt Deo ad comparationem illorum, qui propter amorem coelestis patriae serviunt Deo.

And furthermore there are others who only serve God because of the glory of eternal life, and not because of fear of hell or because of holy service; for they serve God because of fear of punishment, they are not good in the comparison with those who serve God because of holy service, for they are slaves, since they serve because of the fear of punishment; and then in comparison with those who serve because of fear (of hell), those who serve because of holy service are better; and then those who serve God because of the love of their heritage, that is because of the glory of eternal life are better in comparison with those who serve because of holy service; finally they who serve God because of the love for God are better in comparison to those who serve God because of the love the celestial lands.

V. gr. est quidam, qui habet servum, habet vasallum, habet etiam filium. Servus servit propter timorem, ne flagelletur; vasallus autem servit propter fidem suam, quam professus est illi servire, ne inveniatur fallax. Filius quidem dividitur duobus modis: est talis filius, qui ideo servit patri, ne exhaeredetur; iste quidem filius mercenarius est. Est alter filius, qui non pro haereditate,2 sed solummodo pro amore patris, i. e. ne offendat patrem, quia non est illi curae, ut haereditatem habeat, sed magis vult perdere haereditatem, tantum ut patris gratiam habeat et illius laetitia et gaudio fruatur; iste talis filius est.

For example, he who has a slave, who has a vassal, and who has a son. A slave serves because of fear, lest he be flogged; a vassal, however, serves because of his loyalty, which he professed to serve, lest he be found false. A son, indeed, is divided into two modes: is he such a son, who serves his father for that reason, lest he be disinherited; this son is certainly a mercenary. Is he another son, who not for his heritage, but solely for the love for his father that is, he would not offend his father, not because it is his concern to have his heritage, for he would rather lose his heritage, so that thereby he may have his fathers esteem and enjoy his happiness and joy; he is such a son.

Ita et monachus, si pro timore poenae, i. e. ne excominunicetur aut flagelletur, Deo servit, servus est; si autem propter [page 189] professionem suam, quia pollicitus est, Deo servire, i. e. obedire, quasi vasallus est; si autem servit Deo pro haereditate coelestis patriae capienda, mercenarius est; si vero servit soliummodo, ut Domini gratiam habeat et ejus iram non sentiat, filius perfectus est.

Thus also is a monk, if he serves God because of fear of punishment, that is lest he be excommunicated or flogged, a slave; however, if because of [page 189] his profession, because he has promised to serve, i.e. obey God, he is like a vassal; if, however, he serves God to receive his heritage of the heavenly fatherland, he is a mercenary; if he truly serves solely, so that he may have the Lord’s grace and not feel his anger, he is a perfect son.

Unde debet abbas omnes generaliter admonere, ne pro timore poenae aut pro servitio, quod professi sunt, sed solummodo pro Christi amore Deo serviant, ut sint perfecti.

Therefore the abbot must admonish all in general, that they should not serve God for the fear of punishment or for slavery, which they have promised, but solely for the love for Christ, so that they may be perfect.

Deinde singillatim unumquemque debet admonere et debet inquirere isto modo: ‘frater volo, ut tali die mecum loquaris.’ Deinde cum venerit dies, debet illi dicere: ‘ego autem opto et desidero salutem tuam; ideo quaero a te confessionem, et ne verearis mihi confiteri peccata, quia pro salute tua quaero a te confessionem.’ Nam abbas talem se debet exbibere, ut omnes magis illi cupiant confiteri, quam alio, et hoc, quod audit, secrete debet tenere, et illi compatienter debet dicere: ‘Qua intentione es obediens, es jejunans? utrum pro timore, an pro vana gloria, an pro servitio isto, quod professus es, an pro alio aliquo?’ Si ille dixerit: ‘Pro vana gloria,’ debet illum admonere, ut pro solius Dei omnipotentis amore sit devotus et debet illi dicere: ‘Orabo pro te, ut Dominus auferat vanitatem de corde tuo.' Et ita ille postea abbas faciat sibi illum familiarem et dilectum in locutione et in aliqua re, ut ille monachus magis delectetur, illi confiteri; et non illum conturbet aut pro hoc iratum et non sincerum illi postea se ostendat, sed faciat ut bonus medicus. Deinde oratione facta pro illo debet iterum illum interrogare post aliquot dies, utrum exivit de corde suo haec maligna cogitatio. Si autem ille dixerit, quia adhuc perseverat, debet illi dicere: ‘Frater crede mihi, quia pro te oravi, sed quia non fui dignus, ideo me Dominus non exaudivit. Sed noli timere et non verearis confiteri.’ Sicut autem antea fuit illi familiaris ille monachus, ita et postea debet esse, ut gaudeat ei confiteri. Deinde debet in capitulo dicere, non nominando personam,3 sed solummodo loqui hoc modo: [page 190] ‘Est frater quidam inter nos, qui devotus est valde Domino adjuvante, sed habet in corde cogitationes malas; opto caritatem vestram, ut pro illo dignemini orare, ut Dominus auferat malas cogitationes de corde ejus.’

Afterwards he must admonish each one by one and he must inquire in this manner: ‘Brother, I want you to talk with me on such and such a day.’ Afterwards, when the day comes, he must say to him: ‘I hope for and desire your salvation; therefore I seek a confession from you, and you should not fear to confess your sins to me, for it is because of your salvation that I seek a confession from you’. Because an abbot must draw of such, so that all wish to confess more to him, than to another, and that what he hears he must hold secretly, and he must say to him with patience: ‘With which intention are you obedient, are you fasting? Either out of fear, or for vainglory, or for that servitude that you have promised, or for something else?’ If he would say: ‘For vainglory’, he must admonish him, because he should be devoted because of the love for the only God and he must say to him: ‘I shall pray for you, that the Lord may carry away vanity from your heart’. And afterwards the abbot should thus make him a friend and loved-one to himself in speech and in other matters, so that this monk may be loved more and confess to him; and he should not upset him or he may reveal himself afterwards to be angered because of this and not sincere, but he should do as a good doctor. After having prayed for him, he must question him again after several days, whether this malicious thought has withdrawn from his heart. Now if he should say [that] he had still persevered, he must say to him: ‘Brother, trust me, because I have prayed for you, but because I have not been worthy, therefore the Lord has not answered me. But you must not fear and be afraid to confess’. For as it was before, this monk has been a friend to him, and so he must be afterwards, so that he may rejoice to confess to him. Afterwards he must say in chapters, not naming the person, but only speaking in this manner: [page 190] ‘There is a certain brother amongst us, who is much devoted to the helping Lord, but who has bad thoughts in his heart; I which for your kindness, so that you may be deemed worthy to pray for him that the Lord may remove the bad thoughts from his hear’.

Sequitur: 5De quibus Dominus dicit: obauditu auris obaudivit mihi, [cf. Ps 17:45] quasi diceret: illi nesciant moram pati, de quibus Dominus dicit: Obauditu auris obaudivit mihi.

It goes on: 5Concerning them the Lord says: When his ear has heard, he obeyed me, [cf. Ps 17:45] as if he had said: those not knowing to suffer delay, concerning them the Lord says: When his ear has heard, he obeyed me.

Hoc, quod dicit Dominus, de gentibus dicit, quasi diceret: Gentiles non me viderunt miracula facientem, non signa, sed solummodo auditu auris obedierunt mihi.

That, which the Lord says, he says concerning peoples, as if he had said: 'The gentiles have not seen me performing miracles, nor signs, but they have obeyed me solely when their ears had heard.'

Ita et monachi absque discussione debent obedire, quia qui a discussione coeperit, non erit perfectus in fidei obedientia. Gentium agilitas a Domino in hoc loco laudatur, ita et monachi obedientia.

Thus also monks must obey without discussion, because he who begins a discussion, shall not be perfect in the obedience of loyalty. The agility of peoples is praised by the Lord at this place, and also the obedience of monks.

Sequitur: 6et iterum dicit doctoribus: Qui vos audit, me audit [Lc 10:16].

It goes on: 6And again he says to the teachers: He who hears you hears me. [Lc 10:16]

Hoc enim Dominus, cum misit discipulos suos praedicare, dixit. Consolationem et coërcionem dedit auditoribus, cum dicit: Qui vos audit, me audit, et qui vos spernit, me spernit, [Lc 10:16] ac si diceret: 'Sciant auditores et intelligant, quia cum praedicatores meos audiunt, non illos audiunt, sed me.'

For this the Lord said when he sent his disciples to preach. He gave consolation and restraint to the men listening, when he said: He who hears you hears me, and he who scorns you scorns me, [Lc 10:16] as if he says: ‘The listeners shall understand and realize, because when they hear my preachers, they hear not them, but me’.

Et cum dicit: Qui vos spernit, constringit et coërcet et timorem illis incutit: quia, si praedicatores meos spreverint, non illos despiciunt, sed me in illis despiciunt. Unde Dominus dicit ad Samuel, quando populus nolebat eum principem habere, sed quaerebat regem: Audi vocem populi in omnibus, quae loquuntur tibi; non enim, te abjecerunt, sed me, ne regnem super eos. [1 Sm 8:7]

And when he says: He who scorns you, he diminishes and restrains and strikes against the fear in them: because, if they should scorn my preachers, they despise not them, but they despise me in them. Whence the Lord says to Samuel, when the people do not want to have him as a prince, but search a king: Hearken to the voice of the people in all that they say to you. For they have not rejected you, but me, that I should not reign over them. [1 Sam 8:7]

Et itenim magnam consolationem dedit praedioatoribus atque coërcionem. Coërcionem vero, ut, si se cognoverint audiri, non se elevent, quia non se sui auditores, sed me in illis audiunt; et iterum illis consolationem dedit, ut si spreti fueriut ab auditoribus, non irascantur, non indignentur, quia se non spernunt, sed me in illis.

And again he gave much consolation to the preachers as well as restraint. Restraint indeed, so that, if they know that they are heard, they will not make [their task] light for themselves, because their audience do not hear them but me in them. And again he gave them consolation, so that, if they are scorned by their audience, they will not get angry, nor resent, because they do not scorn them but me in them.

Sequitur: 7Ergo hi tales relinquentes statim, quae sua sunt, et voluntatem proprium deserentes 8mox exoccupatis manibus et quod agebant imperfectum relinquentes, vicino obedientiae pede jubentis vocem factis sequuntur.

It goes on: 7Such men, therefore, immediately leaving behind their own concerns and abandoning their own will, 8their hands immediately freed up and leaving their own business unfinished, follow the word of him who commands with deeds in prompt obedience.

Cum dicit [page 191] ergo, superius respicit, quamvis non in verbis ostendat, sed in sensu, ubi dicit: propter servitium sanctum, quod professi sunt et reliqua, ac si diceret: si ita est, i. e. si propter servitium sanctum, quod professi sunt, seu propter metum gehennae vel gloriam vitae aeternae, ergo hi tales factis sequuntur jubentis vocem relinquentes statim, quae sua sunt et reliqua, sicut regula dicit.

When he says, [page 191] therefore, he refers to above, although he does not state it in words, but in sense, when he says: because of the holy service they have professed etcetera, as if he said: if that is so, i.e. if because of the holy service they have professed, the fear of hell, and the glory of eternal life, therefore such men follow the word of him who commands with deeds, immediately leaving unfinished their own business etcetera, as the rule says.

Nunc videndum est, quare dicit sua, cum monachus nil proprii habet, et non solum peccuniam, verum etiam ipsam voluntatem in propria potestate non habet, sicut ipse inferius dicit in capitulo XXXIII: nullum omnino rem, quippe quibus nec corpora sua nec voluntates licet habere in propria potestate? [cf. Regula Benedicti, c. 23.3-4] Istud sua ideo dicit, non ut aliquid habeat monachus proprium, sed tantum quod ad suam necessitatem agit vel habet.

Now we must see, why he says their own, when a monk has no property and no personal money, indeed he does not even have personal power over his own will, as he [Benedict] himself says later in chapter 33: nothing whatsoever, since they are allowed to have neither their bodies nor their wills in their own power? [cf. Regula Benedicti, c. 23:3-4] That their own he says for that reason, not that a monk should have any property, but that he should do or have as much as is a necessity for him.

V. gr. si consuit pannos suae utilitatis, cum imperatur et obedit, statim sua derelinquit. Similiter si lavat pannos aut si aliquid suae utilitatis agit, sua derelinquit, cum imperatur et obedit. Si legit tempore lectionis et, cum imperatur, statim dimittit lectionem, sua derelinquit.

For example if he sows together clothes for his own use, when he is ordered and obeys, he immediately leaves behind his own concerns. Similarly, if he washes clothes or if he does anything for his own use, he leaves behind his own concerns when he is ordered and obeys. If he reads in the time of reading and, when ordered, he immediately abandons his reading, he leaves behind his own concerns.

Similiter intelligendum est, si orat aut psallit et caetera, his similia. Ita et in spiritalibus rebus. Voluntas vero propria attinet ad delectationem; v. gr. si cum jacet et imperatur surgere, non delectatur jacere, sed statim surgit, voluntatem deserit propriam. Similiter si manducat vel bibit aut sedet aut aliquid aliud agit, quod ad corporis delectationem attinet, cum imperatur, illud, quod agit, deserit, voluntatem propriam derelinquit.

It must be understood similarly, if he prays or sings psalms etcetera, these are similar things. Thus also in spiritual affairs. One’s own will truly pertains to pleasure; for example if when he lies down and is ordered to rise, does not take pleasure in lying down but immediately rises, abandons his own will. Similarly, if he eats or drinks or sits or does any other thing which pertains to the pleasure of the body, when commanded, abandons that what he is doing, he relinquishes his own will.

Ita intelligendum est etiam et in spiritalibus rebus, i. e. si cum orat aut legit aut psallit aut aliud aliquid spiritale agit, cum imperatur et statim deserit, voluntatem propriam derelinquit.

Thus this must also be understood in spiritual matter, i.e. if when one prays or reads or sings the psalms or does any other spiritual thing, when he is commanded and immediately abandons [it], he relinquishes his own will.

Talis sensus est in hoc loco, cum dicit sua, qualis est in loco illo, ubi in Moralibus legimus: et reddet homini justitiam suum. [Iob 33:6] Quem sensum papa Gregorius ita exponit hoc modo dicens; ait enim: Justitia “nostra” dicitur, non quae ex nostro nostra est, sed quae divina largitate fit nostra, sicut in Dominica [page 192] oratione dicimus: Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie. [Gregory the Great, Moralia in Hiob XXIV, VII, c. 13, CCSL 143A, p. 1196]

This is the sense in this place, when he says their own, as it is in the place where we read in On Morals: and he renders his justice to men [Hiob 33:6]. Pope Gregory thus sets forth this sense in this way, saying; for he says: It is called “our” justice, not that which is ours from ourselves, but that which comes forth from our divine munificence, just as in our Sunday [page 192] prayer: Give us today our daily bread [Gregory the Great, Moralia in Hiob XXIV, VII, c. 13].

Ecce et ‘nostrum’ dicimus, et tamen, ut detur, oramus. Noster quippe fit, cum accipitur, qui tamen Dei est, quia ab illo datur. Et Dei ergo est ex munere, et noster quippe fit veraciter per acceptionem. Ita ergo hoc loco homini suam justitiam Dominus reddit, non quam ex semetipso habuit, sed quam conditus ut habeat, accepit, et in qua lapsus perseverare noluit. Illam ergo justitiam Deus reddet homini, ad quam conditus fuit, ut inhaerere Deo libeat, nt minacem ejus sententiam pertimescat, ut serpentis callidi jam promissionibus non credat.

See we also say ‘our’, and yet we pray for it to be given. As you see it will become ours, when that which is Gods is received, for it is given by Him. And therefore it is from the service of God, and it truly becomes ours through receipt. Therefore at that place the Lord gives his justice to man, not as he has it for himself, but as it is established for him to have, he has received, and in which he did not want to persist after the Fall. Now God has given that justice to man, in which he is established, so that it would please him to adhere to God, so that he would become very afraid of the threatening sentence, so that he would not believe the promises of the cunning serpent.

Hinc etiam Cassiodorus dicit: Veluti nautae dicunt ventum suum, quo utuntur ad bene navigandum [cf. Augustine, Ennarationes in Psalmos IX, c.5, CCSL 38, p. 60], sic et res monachi sua potest esse et non sua. Sua, quia eam ab abbate tantum ad suam utilitatem accepit, non sua, quia nec vendere, nec donare eam potest sine licentia abbatis, cujus potestas est donandi vel vendendi.

On this Cassiodorus yet again says: Just as sailors call the wind theirs, in that they make use of it at to sail well [cf. Augustine, Ennarationes in Psalmos IX, c. 5], thus also can an affair of a monk be his and not his. His affair, since he receives it as such from the abbot for his use, [and] not his, since he cannot sell or donate it without the permission of his abbot, in whose hands lies the power to donate or sell it.

Statim, i. e. mox; deserentes, i. e. relinquentes; mox, i. e. statim; exoccupatis, i. e. evacuatis; si enim v. gr. consuis et, cum audis imperium, consuendo vadis, quamvis statim vadas, tamen non exoccupatis manibus vadis, i. e. non agis, quod inferius dicit: et quod agebant, imperfectum relinquentes; imperfectum, i. e. non perfectum vel non completum; v. gr. si, cum consuis, habes jam missam setam in foramen pellis vel acum in pannum et imperatus fueris, non debes pertrahere setam aut perducere acum, sed ipsis non expletis statim debes currere ad vocem imperantis, sicuti quidam Marcus monachus legitur fecisse, qui audita voce patris scribens non perfecit circulum o litterae propter obedientiam.

Immediately [statim], i.e. quickly; leaving [deserentes], i.e. leaving behind; quickly [mox], i.e. immediately; freed up [exoccupatis], i.e. emptied off; for if, for example, you sow [clothes] and, when you hear a command, you go on sowing, although you should go immediately [and] yet do not go your hands freed up, i.e. you do not act according to what it says below: and leaving what their business unfinished, i.e. not finished or completed; for example if, when you sow [clothes] and you already have drawn the thread through the whole of the skin or the needle through the cloth and you are given a command, you must not continue to draw the thread or continue to pull the needle through, but you must immediately run towards the commanding voice leaving these unfinished, just as a certain Marcus the monk is read to have done, who had heard the voice of his father while writing [and] did not finish the loop of the letter o out of obedience.

Sequitur: vicino obedientiae pede. Obedientiae genitivus casus est.

It goes on: with prompt [i.e. the standing foot of] obedience. Obedience [obedientiae] is in the genitive case.

Obedientiae (pede) cum dicit, cordis pedem dicit; et iste pes cordis obedientiae movet corporis pedem.

When he says (with the foot of) obedience, he says with the foot of the heart; and that foot of the heart of obedience moves the foot of the body.

Sequitur: 9veluti uno momento praedicta magistri jussio et perfecta discipuli opera in velocitate timoris Dei ambae res communiter citius explicantur.

It goes on: 9The command of the master and the completed work of the disciple happen as if in one moment, in swiftness inspired by the fear of God – both things, done as one, are done more quickly.

Bene dixit momento, quia mos est scripturae divinae, cum praedicat, festinatione nimia esse aliquid agendum, dicit momentum aut punctum [page 193] aut atomum, ut absque mora fiat; veluti Augustinus dicit in quadam sua epistola, quam direxit Vincentio (?), hoc modo: In atomo, inquit, in puncto temporis, quod dividi non potest, in ictu oculi, hoc est in summa celeritate, hoc est in novissima tuba, i. e. in novissimo signo quodam utitur, ut ista compleantur. [Augustine, Epistola. 205, c. 2, 14, PL 33, col. 947]

He rightly said in a moment [momento], since it is the custom of the Holy Writ, when it preaches that something must be done in excessive haste, to say moment or period [punctum] [page 193] or atom [atomum], so that it done without delay; likewise Augustine says it in this manner in a certain letter of his, which he directed at Vincentius: In an atom, he says, in a point of time that cannot be divided, in the blink of an eye, that is in the greatest haste, that is in the youngest trumpet, i.e. in the youngest of signs that is used, so that those things may be done. [Augustine, Epistola 205, c. 5.14]

Ita et B. Benedictus. Quia dixit, sine mora obedientiam esse, ideo dixit momento, ut non sit mora ulla; nam non potuit plus breviter comprehendere, ideo dixit momento.

Thus also the blessed Benedict. Because he said, there is to be obedience without delay, therefore he said in a moment, so that there would be no delay whatsoever; because one cannot comprehend something even shorter in time, therefore he said in a moment.

Momentum dictum est a temporis brevitate, ut quam cito, quam statim, i. e. valde statim salvo negotio reformetur nec in ullam produci moram debeat, quod repetitur sic: nec ullum spatium est momenti, cujus tam brevis est temporis punctus, ut in aliquam moram nullomodo producatur. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae V, c. 25.25]

A moment is said [to exist] through a brevity of time, in order that this quickly, this immediately, i.e. very much immediately, it may be restored by a saved work and must not be produced in any delay, which is repeated thus: there is no space of time, of which a point in time is so short, that it is not produced in any delay. [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae V, c. 25.25]

Momentum enim secundum computi rationem dicitur a motu solis, quousque deserat locum, ubi stare videtur, a momento in minutum, de minuto in punctum, de puncto in horam, de hora in quadrantem, de quadrante in diem, de die in septimanam. [cf. Bede, De temporum ratione, c. 3, CCSL 123B, p. ?]

For a moment, according to the reasoning of computation, is said [to exist] through the motion of the sun, until what time it departs a place, where it appears to be, from a moment into a minute, from a minute into a point, from a point into an hour, from an hour into a quadrant, from a quadrant into a day, from a day into a week. [cf. Bede, De temporum ratione, c. 3, CCSL 123B, p. ?]

In velocitate timoris Dei ambae res communiter citius explicantur. Cum dicit ambae res, subaudiendum est: magistri jussio et opera discipulorum. Cum dicit timoris Dei, attinet ad jussionem et ad opera discipulorum; velocitas enim, i. e. citius,4 ad opera discipulorum solummodo pertinet.

In swiftness inspired by the fear of God – both things, done as one, are done more quickly. When he says both things, one must understand: the command of the master and the works of the disciples. When he says the fear inspired by God, he refers to the command and the works of the disciples; for the swiftness, i.e. more quickly, only pertains to the works of the disciples.

Sequitur: 10Quibus ad vitam aeternam gradiendi amor incumbit, 11ideo angustam viam arripiunt, unde Dominus dicit: Angusta via est, quae ducit ad vitam, [Mt 7:14] 12et (ut?) non suo arbitrio viventes vel desideriis et voluptatibus obedientes, sed ambulantes alieno judicio et imperio in coenobiis degentes abbatem sibi praeesse desiderant.

It goes on: 10The love of moving toward eternal life urges them on; 11therefore they immediately take the narrow path, of which the Lord says: Narrow is the path that leads to life [Mt 7:14], 12so that not living by their own will or obeying their desires and pleasures, but going along according to another’s judgment and command and dwelling in monasteries, they desire to have an abbot over them.

Quibus enim, quod dicit, non ad superiorem sensum altinet, sed melius ad inferiorem sensum referri debet, ut sit constructio: ideo angustam viam arripiunt, unde Dominus dicit: Angusta via est, quae ducit ad vitam. [Mt 7:14] Qui? Illi fratres, quibus incumbit amor gradiendi ad vitam aeternam. [page 194]

Them, in fact, what he says, refers not to the abovementioned sense, but must better be referred to the sense mentioned below, so that the construction is thus: therefore they immediately take the narrow path ‘Narrow is the path that leads to life. [Mt 7:14] Who? Those brothers, whom the love of moving toward eternal life urges on. [page 194]

Reddit causam quare, i. e. ut non suo arbitrio viventes vel desideriis et voluptatibus obedientes; ut enim melior sit sensus, ita debet dici: i. e. ut non suo judicio vivant vel desideriis et voluptatibus obediant, sed quid faciunt? sed desiderant abbatem sibi praeesse in coenobiis degentes, ambulantes alieno judicio et imperio, ac si diceret: propterea angustam viam arripiunt, quibus ad vitam aeternam gradiendi amor incumbit.

He then returns to the reason why, i.e. so that not living by their own will or obeying their desires and pleasures; for it to have a better meaning, it must be read thus: i.e. so that they would not live by their own judgment or obey their desires and pleasures, but what should they do? They desire to have an abbot over them in, living in monasteries, going along according to another’s judgment and command, as if he had said: therefore they take the narrow path, those whom the love of moving toward eternal life urges on.

 Angusta via est, quantum ad initium attinet conversionis, sicut superius diximus.

The narrow path is, as much as it refers to the beginning of the conversion, is as we stated above, by their own will, i.e. by their own discretion [discretione].

Arbitrio, i. e. discretione. In hoc loco desideriis et voluptatibus (voluntatibus) unum significant.

In this place desires and pleasures (wishes [voluntatibus]), signify the same.

Judicio, i. e. discretione; degentes, i. e. viventes, habitantes.

According to judgment, i.e. according to discretion; dwelling, i.e. living, inhabiting.

Sequitur: 13Sine dubio hi tales illam Domini imitantur sententiam, qua dicit: Non veni facere voluntatem meam, sed ejus, qui misit me. [cf. Io 5:30]

If goes on: 13Doubtless such men imitate the words of the Lord when he said: I did not come to do my will but that of him who sent me. [cf. Jo 5:30]

Quid est, quod dicit Dominus: Non veni facere voluntatem meam, sed ejus, qui misit me, cum voluntas Filii non est divisa a voluntate Patris? Non est ita intelligendum secundum divinitatem, sed, cum dicit voluntatem meam, intellige carnis. In Domino Jesu duas naturas credimus, unam carnis et alteram divinitatis. Secundum divinitatem voluntas Filii et Patris una est; cum vero dicit: Non veni facere voluntatem meam, sed ejus, qui misit me – ac si diceret: Non veni facere voluntatem carnis, hoc est voluntatem hominis suscepti, quia Christus ad hoc descendit, ut injuriaretur, pateretur, crucifigeretur. Sed caro timebat flagellari, injuriam pati, spinis coronari, et propterea dixit Dominus: Non veni facere voluntatem meam, sed ejus, qui misit me, i. e. quamvis caro timeat, quamvis non cupiat coronari spinis, tamen ego non veni, voluntatem ejus facere, sed Patris, quae voluntas Patris a mea non est divisa. Et est sensus: non veni facere voluntatem meam, sed meam, i. e. non veni facere voluntatem carnis, quam suscepi, sed veni, facere voluntatem divinitatis meae, qua decrevi, per humanitatem meam mundum redimere. Altero modo potest intelligi hoc ad omnes Catholicos; homo enim ex duabus substantiis constat, i. e. animae et carnis. Anima vult jejunare, psallere et operari et cetera spiritalia; caro [page 195] autem vult jocari, luxuriari et vacare, et cetera carnalia. Et tunc debet dicere omnis Christianus: Non veni facere voluntatem meam, sed ejus, qui misit me, ac si dicat: Non veni facere voluntatem meam, sed ejus, cujus instinctu huc veni. Deinde potest hoc etiam attinere ad monachum, cum est jussus, aliquam exercere obedientiam, et est in ipsa obedientia duritia, frigus aut aliqua neeessitas sivo contrarietas. Tunc debet dicere: Non debeo voluntatem carnis facere, i. e. dimittere hanc obedientiam, sicuti carni meae placet, sed ejus, i. e. abbatis debeo facere voluntatem, qui me in hanc obedientiam misit.

What is it, that the Lord says: I did not come to do my will but that of him who sent me, when the will of the Son cannot be divided from the will of the Father? This is not to be interpreted according to the his divine nature, but when he says my will, interpret it as ‘of the flesh’. We believe in the two natures within the Lord Jesus, one of the flesh and the other divine. According to the divine nature, the will of the Son and of the Father are one; yet when he says: I did not come to do my will but that of him who sent me – as if he had said: I did not come to do the will of the flesh, which is the will of a the state of man He accepted, because Christ descended to this [state], so that He may be injured, would suffer, and would be crucified. But the flesh feared the flogging, to suffer injury, to be crowned with thorns, and therefore the Lord said: I did not come to do my will but that of him who sent me, i.e. although the flesh feared, although it did not desire the crowning with thorns, nevertheless I did not come to do its will, but that of the Father, whose will of the Father is not separated from mine. And this is the sense: I did not come to do my will, but mine, i.e. I did not come to the will of the earthly nature, which I have accepted, but I have come to do the will of my divine nature, by which I have resolved to redeem the world through my humanity.’ This can be interpreted in another way, to pertain to all Catholics; for a man consists out of two substances, i.e. of the soul and of the flesh. The soul wants to abstain, sing psalms and to labour and other spiritual things; the flesh, [page 195] on the other hand, wants to joke, indulge and be idle, and other carnal things. And then every Christian must say: I did not come to do my will but that of him who sent me, as if he says: I did not come to do my will, but his, by whose inspiration I came here’. Then this can also refer to a monk, when he is commanded to exercise his obedience and in that obedience there is hardship, cold and other difficulty or misfortune. Then he must say: ‘I must not do the will of the flesh, i.e. abandon this obedience, just as it pleases my flesh, but I must do his will, i.e. the abbot’s, who has sent me in this obedience.'

Sequitur: 14Sed haec ipso, obedientia tunc acceptabilis erit Deo et dulcis hominibus, si, quod jubetur, non trepide, non tarde, non tepide aut cum murmure vel cum responso nolentis officitur. Quare? 15Quia obedientia, quae majoribus praebetur, Deo exhibetur.

It goes on: 14But this same obedience will be acceptable to God and pleasing to men if what is ordered is done without fear, without delay, without reluctance, grumbling, or a response of unwillingness. Why? 15Because the obedience shown to superiors is offered to God.

Cum dicit hominibus, subaudiendum est: bonis.

When he says to men, it must be understood: ‘good [men]’.

Trepide, i. e. dubitanter, hoc est, non debet monachus dubitationem habere, quando obedit, utrum non possit, an possit facere.

Without fear [trepide], i.e. with hesitation [dubitanter], that is, a monk must not have hesitation, when he obeys, either he can, or he cannot do (something).

Et propterea dicit non tarde, quia sunt multi, qui in principio obedientiae se tardant, i. e. non cito peragunt; et sunt alii, qui in media obedientia tardantur; et alii, qui in fino tardant se.

And therefore he says, without delay [non tarde], because there are many, who hold themselves back in the beginning of obedience, i.e. they do not carry through; and there are others, who hold back in the middle of obedience; and others, who hold themselves back in the end.

Non tepide, i. e. negligenter, non studiose.

Without reluctance [non tepide], i.e. heedlessly, not eagerly.

Sunt multi, qui obediunt patri solummodo trepide et non tarde, non tepide, non cum murmure, non cum responso nolentis. Et iterum sunt alii, qui tarde aut in medio aut in principio vel in fine, et non trepide, non tepide aut cum murmure vel cum responso nolentis efficiunt. Iterum sunt alii, qui cum murmure, et non cum responso nolentis, non tepide, non tarde, non trepide, et sunt alii, qui cum responso nolentis, quod pejus est his omnibus, et non trepide, non tarde, non tepide, non cum murmure obediunt.

There are many, who obey the father only with fear and without delay, without reluctance, and without grumbling, without a response of unwillingness. And then there are others, who comply with delay either in the middle or the beginning or the end, and without fear, without reluctance or grumbling, or a response of unwillingness. Then there are some, who [obey] with grumbling, and without a response of unwillingness, without reluctance, without delay, without fear; and there are others, who obey with a response of unwillingness, which is evil for all of them, and without fear, without delay, without reluctance, and without grumbling.

Murmure attinet ad illum, qui post dorsum abbatis murmurat; responsum nolentis attinet ad illum, qui in conspectu prioris respondet, se nolle.

Grumbling [murmure] refers to him, who mutter behind the abbot’s back; a response of unwillingness [responsum nolentis] refers to him, who in responds in the face of the aforesaid that he does not want to.

Sequitur: quia obedientia, quae majoribus praebetur, Deo exhibetur.

It goes on: Because the obedience shown to superiors is offered to God.

Debet enim abbas monachum admonere et hortari illum, si eum viderit pigrum, secreto dicens: ‘Vide, [page 196] frater, quia si discipulus obedientiam majoribus praebet, Deo illam exhibet; et ideo non debet se credere homini obedire sed Deo, ut non tepide aut tarde aut trepide vel cum murmure sive cum responso nolentis ei obediat, sed cum obedit homini, Deo se credat obedire, et propterea non debet esse piger ad obediendum, quia major merces est. Et adeo debet illum leniter admonere. Postquam vero cognoverit, ejus animum esse devotum, tunc debet illi imperare, ut lucrifaciat eum.

For the abbot must admonish the monk and warn him if he sees him being slow, telling him in private: ‘See, [page 196] brother, because when a disciple offers obedience to his superiors, he shows it to God; and therefore he must not believe to be obeying a man but God, so that he will obey him without reluctance, without delay, without fear or grumbling or a response of unwillingness, but when he obeys a man, he shall believe to be obeying God, and therefore he must not be evil in obedience, because the reward is great. And he must indeed admonish him gently. Afterwards he will have truly learned that his soul is faithful, then he must command him, so that he may receive him.

Sequitur: 15Ipse enim dixit: Qui vos audit, me audit. Iste versus superius tractatus est.

It goes on: 15As he said: He who listens to you listens to me. This verse is cited from above.

Sequitur: 16Et cum bono animo a discipulis praeberi oportet.

It goes on: 16[Obedience] should be offered by students with good will.

Reddit causam, quare? cum dicit: 16quia hilarem enim datorem diligit Deus. [2 Cor 9:7]

This returns us to the reason, why? On which he says:16Because God loves a cheerful giver. [2 Cor 9:7]

Cum dicit praeberi, subaudiendum est: obedientia.

When he says offer [praeberi], we must understand: obedience.

Secundum vero sensum Pauli apostoli attinet ad abbatem, i. e. ut hilariter debeat docere suos auditores et eis sua necessaria laetanter tribuere. [cf. Rm 12:8] Secundum vero Benedicti sensum attinet ad monachos, sicut diximus, ut monachus laeto animo debeat obedientiam abbati suo exhibere.

According to the meaning of the Apostle Paul he rightly refers to the abbot, i.e. for he must cheerfully teach his listeners and joyfully bestow the essential [teachings] to them. [cf. Rm 12:8] According to the meaning of Benedict, he truly refers to the monks, just as we said, that a monk must show his obedience to his abbot with joyful spirit.

Istud enim, quod dicit: hilarem enim datorem diligit Deus, Paulus apostolus dixit de illo, qui eleemosynam tribuit tam carnalem sive etiam spiritalem. Sed B. Benedictus quasi violenter hoc ad suum sensum trahit, cum de discipulo dicit hilarem datorem, i. e. laetum obedientem.

For this is why he says: God loves a cheerful giver, the Apostle Paul said about him, who offers alms [gives] both worldly as well as spiritual. But the blessed Benedict somewhat forcedly takes this from its meaning, when he says about the disciple a cheerful giver, i.e. joyfully obedient.

Sunt enim multi, qui, cum obediunt, tristi animo obediunt, et sunt alii, qui, cum obediunt, laeto animo obediunt. Sed quamvis illi cum laeto, et illi cum tristo animo obediant, tamen parum mercedis exinde acquirunt.

For there are many, who, when they obey, obey with a sad spirit, and there are others, who, when the obey, obey with a joyful spirit. But however much those with joy obey, and those with sadness, still they acquire little reward afterwards.

V. gr. cum sunt tales, qui gaudendo ad obedientiam coquinae vadunt, et ideo gaudent, quia antea erant districti, ut non loquerentur, quae voluissent, et non ambulassent, quo voluissent, et postea occasione hebdomadae loquuntur per claustram et vadunt in hortum. Et sunt alii, qui cum accipiunt obedientiam coquinae vel certe servire infirmis, quia considerant laborem hujus obedientiae, ideo tribulantur, et ob hoc non est perfecta obedientia illorum.

For example, seeing that there are such men, who rush from the kitchen towards obedience with gladness, and therefore rejoice, because earlier there were those busy men, so that they did not speak, what they wanted, and did not walk, where they wanted, and afterwards spoke on the weekly occasion within the cloister and rushed to the garden. And there are others, who whereas they accept obedience in the kitchen or indeed in the attendance to the sick, because they consider it the work of their obedience, they therefore are pressed, and instead theirs is not a perfect obedience.

Vide modo, quia nec illis est mercedis perfectio, qui gaudent, nec istis, qui tribulantur [page 197]. Et idcirco debat abbas hos tales singillatim admonere; illos, qui tribulantur, debet admonere, ut non tribulentur sed cogitent peccata sua, quam multa et quam gravia sunt, quatenus non tribulentur nec timeant laborem, quia magna et multa sunt peccata, quae hoc labore mundantur; illos autem, qui gaudent, debet admonere, ut non gaudeant terreno gaudio sed divino, quatenus per hanc obedientiam valeant regnum adipisci coeleste.

Look at the manner, because neither they who rejoice have the perfection of reward, nor those who are pressed. [page 197] And on that account, the abbot must admonish those individually; those, who are pressed, he must admonish not to be pressed but consider their sins as many and as grave as they are, to what extent they should not be pressed nor fear labour, because great and many are the sins, that are cleansed by labour; yet those, who rejoice, he must admonish not to rejoice in worldly joy but divine, to the extent that through this obedience they will succeed to win the heavenly kingdom.

Sequitur: 17nam cum malo animo si obediat discipulus et non solum ore, sed etiam in corde si murmuraverit, 18etiam si impleat jussionem, tamen acceptum jam non erit Deo, qui cor respicit murmurantis, 19et pro tali facto nullam consequitur gratiam, immo poenam murmurantium incurrit, si non cum satisfactione emendaverit.

It goes on: 17For if a disciple obeys in bad spirit and grumbles not only in words but even in his heart, 18although he carries out the order, then it will nevertheless not be acceptable to God, who sees his grumbling heart. 19And for such a deed the disciple will get no thanks, but instead incur the punishment for grumblers if he does not make amends satisfactorily.

Ac si diceret: non solum nullam gratiam ex hoc consequitur, verum etiam poenas murmurantium incurrit.

As if he had said: Not only does he not receive thanks for that, he certainly incur the punishments for grumblers.

Immo, i. e. potius, magis.

Instead [immo], that is rather, more.

Videamus, qui fuerint illi murmuratores, quorum poenas iste inobediens incurrit, et quae est poena illorum. Murmuratores fuerunt filii Israel; poena illorum fuit ignis coelestis, hiatus terrae, morsus serpentium. Alii mortui sunt hiatu terrae, sicut Dathan et Abiron [cf. Nm 16]; alii morsu ignitorum serpentium; alii igni coelesti.

We shall see [them] who have been those grumblers, whose punishments the disobedient incurs, and [that] which is their punishment. The grumblers were sons of Israel; their punishment was heavenly fire, the opening of the earth, the bite of serpents. Others have died through the opening of the earth, like Dathan and Abiram; others through the bite of unknown serpents; others through heavenly fire.

Sed quare dicatur poena, docet Isidorus ita dicens: Poena dicta est, quod puniat; est autem epithetum necessarium, et sine adjectione non habet plenum sensum; adjicis “poena carceris”, “poena exilii”, “poena mortis”:, et imples sensum. [Isidore of Seville, Etymolog V. c. 27.2]

But why is there talk of punishment, Isidore teaches this, saying: Punishment is so called because it punishes [‘puniat’]; but an epithet is necessary, and without this additional term it does not have a complete meaning; if you add ‘the punishment of prison’, ‘the punishment of exile’, ‘the punishment of death’, you complete the meaning [Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae V. c. 27].

Debet etiam hoc, quod superius dicit: si non cum satisfactione emendaverit, ita intelligi, ista enim debet esse discretio hujus satisfactionis: si [vero] in corde ita murmuraverit, quatenus abbas intellexerit, eum murmurasse, et pro hoc ipse abbas turbatus et commotus est, tunc ipse monachus debet abbati veniam petere; si autem ita tacite in corde murmuraverit, ut abbas non cognoverit, eum murmurasse, tunc incertum videtur, cui satisfaciat, utrum Deo an homini, i. e. confessionem faciat. Ideo dixi: confessionem faciat, quia in hoc loco satisfactio pro confessione [page 198] ponitur. Deinde, quia dixi: incertum est, utrum Deo, an homini satisfacere, i. e. confessionem facere debeat, quamvis incertum sit, tamen videtur mihi, ut satisfaciat, i. e. confessionem faciat homini, i. e. fratri spiritali, qui sciat, sicut regula dicit inferius, i. e. in capitulo XLVI, curare sua et aliena vulnera, non detegere et publicare. [Regula Benedicti, c. 46:5]

This one likewise must, which he says above: if he does not make amends satisfactorily, to be understood thus, for this must be the discretion of his satisfaction: if he has [truly] grumbled in his heart, so much so that the abbot understood him to have grumbled, and for this that abbot is angered and agitated, then that monk must seek pardon from the abbot; if, however, he has grumbled so quietly in his heart, that the abbot has not heard him grumble, then it seems uncertain whom he must satisfy, i.e. should make confession to, either God or man. I have therefore said: he should make confessions, because in that place ‘satisfaction’ is used for ‘confession’. [page 198] Afterwards, because I say: ‘it is uncertain [who] to satisfy, i.e. [who] he must make confession to, either God or man, although it may be uncertain, yet it seems to me that he must satisfy, i.e. make confession to man, i.e. his spiritual brother, who should know, just as the rule says below, i.e. in chapter 46, to treat one own and other’s wounds, not to expose and publish [Regula Benedicti, c. 46.5].

1. quamvis enim (?). (Mittermüller).
2. scil. servit. (Mittermüller).
3. Cod. Emmeram. (Mittermüller).
4. et citius. Cod. Emmeram. (Mittermüller).

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